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41 Cards in this Set

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Define Homeostasis.
The concept of a stable internal environment, achieved through a system of carfull coordinated physiological processes that oppose change.
Describe negative feed-back.
When a function or value decreases below the set point of the system, the feed-back mechanism to increase; and whent it increases above the set point it causes it to decrease.
Describe an example of negative feed-back.
increases in blood glucose stimulate the release of insulin that lowers blood sugar, low blood sugar causes inhibits insulin release and stimulates glucose release.
Describe positive feed-back.
this mechanism interjects instibility; The initiating stimulus produces more of the same stimulus.
Give an example of positive feed-back.
The hormone oxytosin stimulates uterine contractions, which stmulates more contractions: the cycle continues until the baby is born and the cycle is broken.
Define Stress.
A state manifested by a specific syndrome of the body developed in response to any stimuli that made an intense systemic demand on it.
explain the general adaptation syndrome.
The role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the stress response.
explain the GAS theory.
general-the effect is a general systemic reaction. adaptive-because the resonse was in reaction to a stressor. syndrone-the physical manistations were coordinated and dependent on each other.
what are the stages of GAS
alarm stage
resistance stage
exhaustion stage
define alarm stage.
a generalized activation of the HPA axis, resulting in the release of catecholamines and cortisol.
define resistance stage
the body selects the most effective and economical channels of defense. The cortisol levels drop because they are no longer needed.
define exhaustion stage
if the stressor is prolonged or overwhelms the bodies defenses, resoorces are depleted.
list the hormones associated with the stress response.
catecholamine (NE & Epi), CRF, ACTH, Glucocortico hormones(cortisol), Mineralocorticoid hormones (aldosterone), ADH.
List the source of these hormones and describe their physiologic effects.
(NE, EPI)
(NE, EPI)- Locus ceruleus, adrenal medulla.
< insulin, > glucagon resulting in
>glycogenolysis,
gluconeogenisis,lipolysis, proteolysis. > HR, cardiac contractility & bronchiodilation.
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)
Hypothalamus.
stimulates ACTH release from anterior pituitary and > activity in neurons in locus ceruleus.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Anterior pituitary.
stimulates the synthesis and release of cortisol.
Glucocorticoid hormones.
(cortisol)
adrenal cortex.
potentiates the action of epi and glucagon. inhibits the release and/or actions of reproductive hormones & TSH, & produces a < in immune cells and inflammatory mrdiators.
Mineralcorticod hormones (aldosterone)
adrenal cortex.
> sodium absorption by the kidneys.
Antidiuretis hormone (ADH)
Hypothalamus, posterior pituitary.
> water absorption by the kidneys; produces vasoconstriction of blood vessels: and stimulates the release of ACTH.
discuss neuroendocrine responses.
It relies on communication along neuronal pathways of the cerebral cortex,limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus,pituitary gland, and the reticular activating system.
cerebral cortex
involved with vigilance, cognition, and focused attention.
limbic system
emotional components ( fear, excitement, rage, anger) of the stress response.
thalamus
functions as the relay center and is important in recieving, sortingout and distributing sensory input.
hypothalamus
coordinates the response of the autonomic nervous system.
reticular activating system
modulates mental alertness, ANS activity, and skeletal muscle tone, using input from other neural structures.
what is the locus ceruleus
is densly populated with neurons that produce NE and is thought to br the central intergrating site for the ANS response to stress.
What is corticotropin - releasing factor
a small peptide hormone that has both an important role as a endrocrine regulator of pituitary and adrenal activity, and a neurotransmitter involved in ANS activity, metabolism and behavior
how does CRF effect the stress response
CRF from the hypothalumus induces ACTH from the anterior pituitary gland. ACTH in turn stimulates the adrenal gland to synthesize and secrete cortisol.
what effects do glucocorticoid hormones have
they have both direct and indirect effects that mediate the stress response. enhance the actions of other hormones, or suppress other components of the stress system.
What are some of the effects of cortisol
maintains blood glucose levels by antagonizind the effects of insulin and enhances the effect of catecholamines on the cardiovascular system.
Other cortisol functions include
supress osteoblast activity, hematopoiesis protein and collegen synthesis, and immune responses.
how can cortisol effect thyroid funtion
stress induced cortisol also is associated with decreased levels of thyroid hormone and inhibition of conversion of (t4 to the more biologicially active t3)a means to conserve energy.
What is the role of ADH in the stress response
ADH is involved in the stress response, particularly in hypotensive stress or stress do to fluid volume loss.
what role does immune cells play in the stress response.
monocytes and lymphocytes can penetrate the blood-brain-barrier where the secrete cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that influence the stress response.
What is the most fully evolved mechanism for copind and adaptation to stress.
the social responses through which individuals or groups modify their environments, their habits, or both.
list some factors that affect the ability to adapt.
physiologic and anatomic reserve, time, genetics, age, health status, nutrition, sleep-wake cycles, hardiness, psychosocial factors.
define post traumatic stress disorder.
chronic activation of the stress response as a result of experiencing a potentially life threatening event.
how is PTSD characterized
a constellation of symptoms that are experienced as states of intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal.
define Intrusion
the occurrence of flash backs during waking hours or nightmares in which the event is relived.
define avoidance.
the emotional numbing that occompanies this disorder disrupts important personal relationships. (survivor guilt)
define hyperarousal
the presence of increased irritability, difficulty in concentration, an exaggerated startle reflex, and concerns over safety.