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5 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a nucleotide?
Each DNA subunit--consisting of one deoxyribose molecule, one phosphate group, and one base
What is complementary base pairing?
The consistent pairing of adenine (A)with thymine (T) and of guanine (G) with cytosine (C).
What is a mutation?
A mutation is any inherited alteration of genetic material.

e.g. base pair substitution, where one base pair is replaced by another.

The frameshift mutation involves the insertion or deletion of one or more base pairs of the DNA molecule.
What are mutagens?
agents known as mutagens increase the frequency of mutations.

Examples include radiation and chemicals such as nitrogen mustard, vinyl chloride, alkylating agents, formaldehyde, and sodium nitrite.
Genes are composed of DNA, which has three basic components, what are they?
1. deoxyribose (the pentose sugar molecule);
2. a phosphate molecule;
3. and four types of nitrogenous bases (Two of the bases, cytosine and thymine, are single carbon-nitrogen rings called pyrimidines. The other two bases, adenine and guanine, are double carbon-nitrogen rings called purines.

The four bases are commonly represented by their first letters: A, C, T, and G.