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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
symptoms patent ductus arteriosus
* tachycardia or other arrhythmia
* respiratory problems
* shortness of breath
* heart murmur
* enlarged heart
* cyanosis
__________ is defined as the process in which a left-to-right shunt in the heart causes increased flow through the pulmonary vasculature, causing pulmonary hypertension, which in turn, causes increased pressures in the right side of the heart and reversal of the shunt into a right-to-left shunt
Eisenmenger's syndrome or Eisenmenger's reaction
Tetralogy of Fallot
1.) Pulmonic stenosis
2.) Aorta overrides the ventricular septum (dextrorotation)
3.) Ventricular septal defect
4.) Right ventricular hypertrophy.
Turner syndrome symptoms
associated with which congenital cardiovascular anomoly
female with only one X chromosome
* Short stature
* Lymphoedema (swelling) of the hands and feet
* Broad chest and widely-spaced nipples
* Low hairline
* Low-set ears
* Reproductive sterility

Aortic coarctation
Downs syndrome associated with what congenital cardiovascular anomoly
Ostium primum atrial septal defect
2 types of aortic coarctation
1. Preductal coarctation: this occurs in children, with an increased risk in Turner syndrome. The word preductal means that the narrowing is anterior to the ligamentum arteriosum.
2. Post-ductal coarctation: this is mainly seen in adults.
symptoms of postductal coarctation
hypertension in the upper extremities
hypotension in lower extremeties
Collateral circulation develops involving the axillary arteries and the intercostal arteries which characteristically have intervertebral notching on chest films.
Anatomical changes associated with truncus arteriosus:
* single artery arising from the two ventricles which gives rise to both the aortic and pulmonary vessels
* abnormal truncal valve
* right sided aortic arch in about 30% of cases (not shown)
* large ventricular septal defect
* pulmonary hypertension
* complete mixing occurring at level of the great vessel
Type 1 truncus arteriosus
both right and left pulmonary arteries arise from the pulmonary trunk off the main trunk
Type 2 truncus arteriosus
both right and left pulmonary arteries arise from the main trunk
type 3 truncus arteriosus
right pulmonary artery comes off the ascending aorta trunk. left artery comes off the descending aorta
type 4 truncus arteriosus
trunk is split with the pulmonary segment giving rise to the descending aorta beyond the left carotid
type 5 truncus arteriosus
both the right and left pulmonary arteries arise off the descending aorta