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246 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What tumor-derived hormones are secreted in paraneoplastic syndrome associated with bronchogenic carcinoma?
Parathyroid-like polypeptide (hypercalcemia); ACTH-producing tumor (overstimulation of adrenals-->cushings syndrome); ADH-producing (water retention)
Sarcoidosis can affect any organ, but what does it affect especially, according to lecture (according to carranza….blah blah blah)
Especially Lungs, thoracic/neck lymph nodes, the skin, salivary glands, and lacrimal gland (dryness)
Which chronic lung disease is caused by inhalation of fumes, dust, or particulate matter (inorganic)?
What is usually the etiology of URTI's (common cold)?
Viruses (ie rhinoviruses, coronavirus, RSV, parainfluenza, etc.
Moderate hypertension, angina pectoris, congestive heart failure are what ASA type?
Chronic Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is _______ ________, as opposed to acute which is mediated by antigen-antibody complexes.
Cell mediated
What disease is associated with amyloidosis and recurrent pneumonias?
What is this process: Airless lung parenchyma due to incomplete expansion of lungs or collapse of previously infiltrated lung
Bacterial URTI's are not as common as viral, but when present exhibit what characteristics?
PMN's and exudate formation; whitish yellow membranes in throat
T or F: a patient with latent TB is not infectious
The type of emphysema caused by Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency is called _________ emphysema.
Dyspnea, Cachexia, Barrel Chest, Cor Pulmonale, Congestive Heart Failure are clinical signs of what disease?
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Minimal Sputum
"Barrel Chest" is a result of what?
attempt to increase ventilation
Coccidiomycosis, Aspergillosis, or Zygomycosis: Deep fungal lung disease
All of them (that better not have tricked you)
Coccidiomycosis, Aspergillosis, or Zygomycosis: Especially in diabetics
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Severe Dyspnea
Emphysema (Puffer=dyspnea)
The _______ cavity is the space between viseral pleura and parietal pleura (separated by thin layer of fluid)
Cor pulmonale causes _________ heart failure due to __________.
Right-sided; Pulmonary hypertension caused by lung disease
T or F: Chronic Bronchitis at times is not easily distinguished from Emphysema.
True; sometimes they go hand in hand
What is the most significant congenital respiratory disease?
Tracheo-esophageal fistula
What are four examples of congenital respiratory diseases?
Tracheo-esophageal fistula, Bronchiogenic cysts, hypoplasia, vascular anomalies
What is the name of the disease caused by URTI's?
common cold
Who is most susceptible to deep fungal lung diseases?
Immunosuppressed, AIDS pts, uncontrolled diabetics, transplant pts, etc.
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Hypoxia, Cyanosis, polycythemia (increased rd blood cells)
What 3 types of atelectasis are there?
Deficiency of surfactant; External compression of lung; resorption of air in lung, distal to an obstruction
What is the most common complication of chronic bronchitis?
In obstructive lung disease, Total lung capacity/forced vital capacity is _______ to ________.
Normal to Increased
Coccidiomycosis, Aspergillosis, or Zygomycosis: Often in a hospital setting
T or F: Tumors can be associated with bronchiectasis
T or F: Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction.
In obstructive lung disease, there is a _________ in expiratory flow rate.
Cavitary lesions filled with pus.
Lung Abscess
T or F: Cystic fibrosis can be associated with bronchiectasis
________ obstruction (in obstructive lung disease) is due to narrowing of airway (what disease) or loss of elastic recoil (what disease).
Expiratory; asthma; emphysema
What is the key element of the massive lung fibrosis that causes pneumoconioses?
Alveolar Macrophages
In restrictive lung disease, total lung capacity is __________.
T or F: A patient with Bronchiectasis presents with bronchi (and/or bronchioli) filled with mucopurulent material; this mucous can be cleared by coughing.
First statement true, second statement false
Restrictive lung disease is due primarily to either _________ abnormalities or __________ damage.
chest wall; parenchymal
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Weight loss
Emphysema (cachexia)
What two body systems does the ASA (MED) classification emphasize?
Cardiovascular and Respiratory
A particle that is less than ______ microns in size can enter alveoli, contributing to what disease?
5; Pneumoconioses
What 2 components of the bronchial wall are primarily involved in asthma? (undergo hyperplasia)
Mucous glands (goblet cells); Smooth muscle
T or F: Chronic inflammation is part of asthma.
What Antibody is involved in extrinsic asthma?
T or F: Sarcoidosis can affect any organ, not just the lungs.
What ASA classification would a patient with mild to moderate systemic disease that does not interfere with day-to-day activity?
What are the 3 main Middle Respiratory tract infections?
1. Croup; 2. Epiglottitis, 3. Bronchiolitis
What bronchodilators are used to treat asthma?
Beta2-agonists; theophyline
What clinical significance does multiple asthma medications have?
More medications means more severe asthma
Is Asthma a restrictive or obstructive lung disease?
Usually Obstructive
Is asthma considered acute or chronic?
Acute (although the underlying process is more chronic)
What disease is associated with low grade fever, malaise, fatigue, and clubbing of the fingers?
What types of medications might patients with bronchitis or emphysema be on? List 5
Bronchodilators, corticosteroids, diuretics, alveolar surfactants, antibiotics
Greater than __ emergency room visits in the past year are a risk factor for treating a patient with asthma.
3 general types of lesions of the pleura:
Inflammatory, traumatic, neoplastic
Use of greater than __ beta-agonist canisters per month is a risk factor for asthma patients.
T or F: current use of systemic corticosteroids is a risk factor for asthma pts.
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Peribronchial fibrosis
Sepsis, shock, trauma, pneumonia, toxic lung injury, aspiration of fluids, and blood transfusions can all cause what disease?
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
What bacteria predominantly causes Lung abscess?
S. Aureus
Which MRTI is characterized by: acute viral illnes of larynx, especially affects ages 3-5 yrs., loud cough, barking seal (like chase in the mornings)
What is the major asthma medication which can cause complications with long term use?
T or F: Anthracosis increases incidence of Tuberculosis.
What four complications can long term use of corticosteroids have?
Osteoporosis, immunosuppression, addisonian crisis (secondary adrenal insufficiency), diabetes
What fungal disease do all our professors like to talk about since it is widespread in the midwest?
Increased responsiveness of bronchial tree to various stimuli is ________.
If a dental patient with asthma has had no attacks for several years, they are what ASA/MED?
If a dental patient with asthma has occasional attacks managed by bronchodilators they are what ASA?
T or F: In Cor Pulmonale, The Right Ventricle hypertrophies due to congestion in the lungs.
If a dental patient with asthma has many/severe attacks they are what ASA?
What % of patients with sarcoidosis have elevated ACE (angiotensin Converting Enzyme)?
60 % (another percentage baby)
T or F: Aspirin is involved in Intrinsic asthma.
Mild hypertension, some forms of diabetes melitus are characteristic of what ASA type?
What medications should you avoid prescribing to asthma patients?
Beta blockers, aspirin, sulfites
T or F: Croup is extremely life-threatening.
________ abscesses have a fibrous capsule
What are the three major chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)?
Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis, Bronchiectasis
T or F: Many times COPD is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, not just pinned down to one systemic problem.
Why do patients with bronchiectasis have clubbing of the fingers?
It is related to chronic hypoxia.
T or F: All patients affected with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome die during the acute stage.
False. 70% die during this stage, but the remainder progress to a chronic stage, where 10% may survive, and 20% eventually die from interstitial fibrosis
T or F: COPD is a reversible condition
T or F: Most histoplasmosis infections go on to become chronic.
False; most are acute and then resolve
Among patients with COPD in the US, the vast majority have __________ (14 million) and the remainder have __________ (2 million)
Chronic Bronchitis; Emphysema
Name the 5 factors that are considered in susceptibility to Pneumoconioses.
1. Size/shape of particle (<5 microns); 2. Composition of particles; 3. Duration of exposure; 4. Patients clearance mechanism; 5. Other irritants (ie smoking)
What is the only acute, restrictive lung disease?
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is caused by a mechanism of either 1. Injury to the _________ _______ in pulmonary capillaries or 2. Injury to the ________ _________ _______.
1. Endothelial cells; 2. Alveolar lining cells
What disease: Enlargement of airspaces distal to terminal bronchioles; destruction of alveolar walls; loss of elastic recoil; collapse of unsupported, enlarged air spaces on expiration; obstruction on expiration
Name the ASA class: Severe systemic disease that limits activity but not incapacitating
T or F: Silicosis can lead to bronchogenic carcinoma.
What is the characteristic difference of air sacs between healthy air sacs and air sacs with emphysema?
Emphysema: weakened and collapsed air sacs with Excess mucous
This disease was first widely recognized during the vietnam war (Da Nang Lung).
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
What are lung abscesses a complication of?
Staphylococcal pneumonia; aspiration of foreign material (swallowing a crown, poor dental hygiene, etc.)
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Pulmonary hypertension
What is the major cause of emphysema?
T or F: It is necessary to consult with a physician prior to treating a ASA II patient.
In extremely rare cases (1%) what can cause emphysema?
hereditary alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (which protect the tissue from leukocyte proteases)
In the Protease-antiprotease mechanism of emphysema, what 2 things does smoking do?
1. Inhibits antielastase; 2. favors recruitment of leukocytes and release of elastase (causing elastic damage to the tissue)
Which MRTI is characterized by: acute, severe, life-threatening disease, presents as a child w/ fever +/- sore throat, clinical triad of drooling, dysphagia, distress
Other than the protease-antiprotease mechanism, what else does smoking do to cause emphysema?
Oxidant/antioxidant imbalance (free radicals released, induce cell damage)
The type of emphysema caused by smokers is called _________ emphysema.
Which type of bronchogenic carcinoma has the worst prognosis, most aggressive, and not usually amenable to surgery?
Small Cell (oat cell)
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Frequent Upper Respiratory infections
Name the types of Pleural Lesions:
Mesothelioma, Pleural effusions and plueritis, Pneumothorax, Hemothorax, Chylothorax
What disease: Excessive production of tracheobronchial mucous causing cough.
Chronic Bronchitis
What 3 diseases included in COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)?
Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis, Bronchiectasis (just a reminder)
What disease: erodes bronchial wall, eric-smelling sputum, chest pain, weight loss, chronic cough, fever, clubbing of fingers and toes
Lung Abscess *note, bronchiectasis also has clubbing of toes--the difference here is eroding of bronchial wall. Bronchiectasis is permanent dilatation of bronchial wall.
N2O (increases/supresses) pH as a stimulus to respiration, because N2O has a high O2 content.
T or F: ASA III patients can withstand most dental procedures with appropriate modifications.
Anthracosis, Silicosis, or Asbestosis, all three, or none: Increased risk of TB
Anthracosis and Silicosis
_____ % of Chronic Bronchitis cases are caused by _________.
90%; Smoking (I know we all love percentages)
What organism causes Epiglottitis?
Haemophilus Influenzae
T or F: N2O can diffuse into closed spaces
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Acute disease
Neither (trick question!)
What are the risk factors for contracting histoplasmosis (other than living in this hell hole we call omaha….j/k)
exposure to soil contaminated with bird poo, preexisting COPD, compromised immunity
What disease: Thickening of bronchial walls, mucous gland hyperplasia, chronic inflammation, fibrosis, mucous plugging.
Chronic Bronchitis
The presence of transudate in the pleural space is called ________
hydrothorax; caused by CHF and Left-sided heart failure especially
T or F: Chronic Bronchitis results in Restriction.
False; leads to obstruction
What are the main differences in the pathways for chronic bronchitis and emphysema?
Bronchitis: bronchiolar injury, hypersecretion of mucous; emphysema: destruction of alveolar walls early (bronchitis does it later)
What ASA type is a patient with COPD and NO congestive heart failure?
What ASA type is a patient with COPD WITH congestive heart failure?
Which acute disease exhibits severe dyspnea, cyanosis, and hypoxia?
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
One of the main characteristics (underlined in the notes) of chronic Bronchitis is ________.
What is ectasia?
dilatation or distension of hollow organs
Anthracosis, Silicosis, or Asbestosis, all three, or none: Can lead to mesothelioma
Asbestosis (this is the #1 characteristic of asbestosis)
What disease: Permanent dilatation of bronchi, can be secondary to persisting infection or obstruction
T or F: Asthma is more common in females.
FALSE (males 2:1)
What process takes place in pulmonary fibrosis or tuberculosis?
What is the first step in treatment for bronchitis and emphysema?
Quit smoking
________ occurs as a result of an exudate (protein rich)
The two chronic restrictive lung diseases caused by occupational/environmental exposure are: 1.____, 2._________
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis; Pneumoconioses (ie asbestosis)
In this disease, fibrin is deposited along damaged alveolar lining , which leads to diffuse alveolar damage.
What is Acute respiratory distress syndrome? (jeopardy style baby)
Anthracosis, Silicosis, or Asbestosis, all three, or none: increases risk of cancer 5 fold
Chronic Restrictive lung diseases are diseases of _________ ________.
Lung parenchyma
Anthracosis, Silicosis, or Asbestosis, all three, or none: runs a benign course
What term means: Labored Breathing
T or F: Now epiglottitis is more prevalent in children than adults.
False. Other way around.
90% of all lung cancers are caused by smoking (150,000 deaths/yr). What are the other 10% caused by? (hint-variety of things)
Radon (radioactive gas=2nd leading cause--.20,000 deaths/yr); Air pollution; Radiation exposure; Asbestos exposure; Nickel and chromate exposure
The end result of chronic restrictive lung diseases is _________.
Diffuse pulmonary fibrosis
Anthracosis, Silicosis, or Asbestosis, all three, or none: shows pleural plaques
T or F: Chronic Bronchitis gives you the "pink puffer."
False; gives you "Blue Bloater" (B for Bronchitis, Blue Bloater)
Anthracosis, Silicosis, or Asbestosis, all three, or none: Leads to Fibrosis
All Three
What causes pleural effusion?
Microbial infection, cancer, pulmonary infarction, viral pleuritis
Which chronic restrictive lung disease has no known cause?
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Histoplasmosis infection symptoms include: fever, chills, weight loss, cough (with/without) mucus or pus
In asbestosis, what sets off a fibrogenic reaction?
Macrophages ingesting an asbestos fiber
What immune cells are primarily involved in asthma?
mast cells
Neutrophil/complement defects (humoral defects) result in increased incidence of ___________ ________.
Bacterial pneumonia
What disease invovles extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by exposure to organic dust?
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
Cell-mediated immune defects result in increased incidence of (intracellular/extracelluar) ___________.
Intracellular parasites (ie TB, HSV, pneumocystis carinii)
What are the two types of asthma?
Extrinsic and Intrinsic
What MRTI is characterized by: acute infectious disease of lower respiratory tract (bronchi/bronchioles, not alveoli), mostly in young infants 2-24 mos.,
What disease presents commonly following URTI, absent splenic function, chills, pleuritic chest pain, productive cough.
What ways can pneumonia be spread?
Inhalation of pathogens, aspiration of infection, aspiration of gastric contents, hematongenous spread (IV, septic emboli)
What disease: Multi-system granulomatous disease of unknown etiology (presumably immune mediated)
What are the possible complications of pneumonia?
Abscess formation; Plueritis, empyema (collection of pus); fibrosis--> chronic Dx
T or F: in a patient older than age 40, in the absence of systemic infection, lung complications should be assumed it is cancer until proven otherwise.
What term means: Physican wasting with loss of weight and musche mass caused by disease
T or F: Emphysema gives you the "pink puffer."
True (emphysema=pink puffer)
What is the definition of Pneumonia?
Any infection in the lung (acute or chronic)
Pneumonia is of Bacterial, viral, or fungal origin?
Any of the above.
In Asthma, which is more difficult, expiration or inspiration?
T or F: Pneumoconioses is caused by exposure to organic dust particles.
False; inorganic particles (organic--Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis)
What are the 2 main subclasses of pneumonia?
Lobar Pneumonia and Bronchopneumonia
________ asthma is associated with young-onset asthma.
What is main cause of Bronchiolitis?
Viral infection (80%--esp. respiratory synctial virus)
Bronchopneumonia or Lobar Pneumonia: Consolidation of multiple respiratory units surrounding individual bronchial branches
Bronchopneumonia or Lobar Pneumonia: Consolidation of entire Lobe of Lung
Lobar Pneumonia
What are the 2 main pathways of pathogenesis for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome?
Damage to alveolar lining cells or damage to alveolar capillary endothelium--leads to interstitial edema, high protein exudation (hyaline membranes)
What treatment difference is there for bronchitis?
Use bronchodilators and antibiotics.
What organisms cause community acquired acute pneumonias?
Haemophilus Influenzae; Moraxella catarrhalis; Staph Aureus; Klebsiella Pneumoniae; Legionella Pneumoniae
What organism causes Pneumococcus?
Streptococcus pneumoniae
How can histoplasosis be diagnosed?
sputum test, chest x-ray, biopsy of granulomatous tissue, complement fixation, urinary antigen test, immunodiffusion test
What organisms cause community acquired atypical pneumonias?
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae, Chlamidia sp., Viruses
What type of asthma is associated with Type I hypersenistivity, allergens, atopic dermatitis and hay fever?
T or F: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is only an acute disease.
False. It can also be a chronic disease.
What is the death rate for SARS?
10% die
Give an example of a community acquired atypical pneumonia caused by a virus.
What immune related chronic restrictive lung disease affects blacks 10:1 and women 2:1?
What organism causes nosocomial pneumonia (according to lecture notes)?
Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
What is the primary cause for aspiration pneumonia?
Markedly debilitated; unconscious patients; abscesses frequent
Fibrothorax, Pneumothorax, Empyema, Hemothorax, or chylothorax: encasement of lungs with fibrous tissue that obliterates pleural cavity.
T or F: Lung cancer usually has a poor prognosis with a 5 yr survival rate of 10-15%.
Cytomegalovirus primarily affects who?
Immunosuppressed (AIDS), bone marrow transplant
Pneumocystis pneumonia affects who?
Immunosuppressed (AIDS)
What organism causes tuberculosis?
Mycobacteria Tuberculosis (causes chronic bacterial infection)
What chronic lung disease is associated with caseating granulomatous inflammation?
T or F: Anthracosis usually leads to bronchogenic carcinoma.
False; Most=benign course
How is histoplasmosis treated?
What types of cells are associated with TB?
epitheliod macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes
approximately how many of the world's population are infected with TB?
T or F: Intrinsic asthma is immune-mediated.
What disease: purulent cough, dyspnea, hypoxia, cyanosis, peribronchial fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale, congestive heart failure.
Chronic Bronchitis
Fibrothorax, Pneumothorax, Empyema, Hemothorax, or chylothorax: Entry of air or gas into pleural cavity; may cause atelectasis, compression, collapse of lung.
Pneumothorax (spontaneous vs trauma)
What is the "Ghon Complex"?
associated with localized lung inflammation in primary tuberculosis
Acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis is of _______ onset and is mediated (or affected) by _________ ________.
Sudden; antigen-antibody Complexes
T or F: Primary TB usually heals spontaneously
Define Consolidation as it refers to the lungs.
Process of becoming solid (ie when lung becomes firm as air spaces are filled with exudate in pneumonia)
What treatment is there for the rare form of emphysema?
alpha 1-antitrypsin infusion
T or F: In primary TB, viable organisms can still persist after healing and calcification
T or F: Bronchiolitis usually resolves in 7-10 days.
T or F: Histoplasmosis ususally responds poorly to antifungal meds.
False; responds well
The "ghon Complex" forms in which part of the lung and enlarges which lymph nodes?
lower part of upper lobe, upper part of lower lobe (right in the middle); enlarges hilar lymph nodes
T or F: Sarcoidosis exhibits caseating granulomas
False; exhibit non-caseating granulomas
Anthracosis, Silicosis, or Asbestosis, all three, or none: Increased risk of bronchogenic carcinoma
Silicosis (maybe asbestosis too, but mesothelioma is the characteristic sign of asbestosis
Granulomas in TB can produce cavities in the lungs which can cause hemoptysis. What is hemoptysis?
coughing up blood
T or F: The primary TB infection is more damaging than the secondary infection.
False (other way around)
What disease: non-specific mild pulmonary disease, low grade fever, 95% undiagnosed, ghon complex
Primary TB
What disease: Non-productive cough, low grade fever, malaise, night sweats, weight loss, hemoptysis
Secondary TB
One of the MAIN causes (that he underlined) of INTRINSIC asthma is _______
Psychological stress
What can be seen in a sputum test for TB?
Acid fast bacilli
How long after a Mantoux skin test should you be examined?
48-72 hrs.
What Middle Respiratory Tract Tumor did we mention in class? (only one)
SCCA (squamous cell carcinoma) of Larynx
What are 3 specific examples of Pneumoconioses?
1. Coal worker's lung (anthracosis); 2. Silicosis; 3. Asbestosis
T or F: the erythema around the indurated area of a PPD test is measured.
False. Only the induration is measured (normal = <10 mm)
What potential complication arises from using N2O sedation on a patient with emphysema?
They can be dependent on LOW O2 levels as a primary stimulant to respiration; N2O has high concentration of O2 so it can lead to cease of respiration.
T or F: After treating histoplasmosis, fibrotic changes may still remain.
Fibrothorax, Pneumothorax, Empyema, Hemothorax, or chylothorax: Pockets of pus surrounded by fibrous tissue; caused by infection that spreads from the lung.
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Productive cough
What can be done in the dental office to prevent an attack of dyspnea during treatment?
Treat in semi-upright position; always have inhaler
T or F: Asthma is more common in children.
TRUE. 10% of children get it, while 5% of adults get it.
What disease: widespread hematogenous seeding of bacteria; numerous granulomas in lungs or other organs (ie spleen)
Miliary TB
T or F: Sarcoidosis is typically a fatal disease.
False; 10% mortality, 70% spontaneous recovery, 50% asymptomatic
T or F: Disseminated TB can cause granulomas on pluera (causing pleuritis) and extrapulmonary TB
Where are the most common sites of metastasis of lung cancers?
Brain and Liver mostly, occasionaly bone (mandible), rarely oral soft tissue
Premature infants commonly have respiratory problems due to insufficient pulmonary __________.
What is the main cause of SCCA of the larynx?
Smoking and chronic alcohol use
What is by far the most common type of lung cancer?
Bronchiogenic Carcinoma (90-95% of lung cancers)
Two of the causes of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (as stated in the notes) are: __________ Lung and _______ _________ Lung.
Farmer's Lung (moldy hay/grain); Pigeon Breeder's Lung (pigeon serum protein in droppings)
T or F: Pulmonary Histoplasmosis progression to Disseminated Histoplasmosis is common.
FALSE; happens, but rarely
If N2O diffuses into large gas-filled blebs in patients with COPD, what can happen?
They can rupture
Fibrothorax, Pneumothorax, Empyema, Hemothorax, or chylothorax: Collection of blood in space between chest wall and lung (pleural cavity).
Hemothorax (trauma vs. rupture of intrathoracic aortic aneurysm)
List the 4 types of Bronchiogenic carcinomas.
1. SCCA (30%) 2. Adenocarcinoma (30%) 3. Large Cell undifferentiated (10%) 4. Small Cell (oat cell-20%)
Coccidiomycosis, Aspergillosis, or Zygomycosis: Southwest
What type of lung cancer arises from the terminal bronchioles?
Bronchioalveolar cancer
What is a type of lung cancer that is a neuroendocrine tumor of low malignancy?
What ASA type(s) is it mandatory to consult with the physician first?
IV (III is wise, but not necessary)
What type of lung cancer is associated with asbestos exposure, takes 25-40 yrs to develop, is pluera-derived, and has a poor prognosis?
What disease: persisten hoarseness, change in voice, stridor (high pitched crowing sound), rare under age 40
SCCA of larynx
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Cor Pulmonale
What do small (oat) cells arise from?
Neuroendocrine cells
T or F: Metastatic lung tumors are more common than primary lung tumors (single site)
What is the treatment and survival rate for SCCA of the larynx?
Radiation w/ or w/out surgery; 75% survival rate if early Dx.
What type of hormones do small (oat) cell (bronchogenic carcinoma) express?
polypeptide hormones
Fibrothorax, Pneumothorax, Empyema, Hemothorax, or chylothorax: Presence of lymphatic fluid in pleural space; secondary to leakage/obstruction of thoracic duct or main tributaries
Chylothorax (causes: lymphoma, surgical trauma)
What chronic lung disease is associated with elevated ACE?