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26 Cards in this Set

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Triple response of Sir Thomas Lewis
Vasoconstriction (dull red line)
Vasodilation (red halo-flare)
Increased Endothelial permeability (swelling, wheal, edema)
Exudate...cause, sp gravity, contents?
Cause: Inflammation, Due to increase vascular permeability

sp gravity of >1.020

contents: protein, debris, cells etc..
Two possible causes of decreased oncotic pressure..
Dec serum albumin (1) Dec liver production (2) Inc renal excretion
Microfilaria

two knows types...
Parasites that lodge in the lymphatic system and create blockage and cause Elephantiasis.

(two knows types...Wucharia Bancrofti and Brugai Malayi)
Wucheria Bancrofti
Lymphatic Fliaria parasite
Brugia Malayi
Lymphatic Filaria parasite
Anasarca
Generalized edema involving the extracellular space in subcutaneous tissue, visceral organs and body cavities.
Most common complication of cirrhosis?
Ascites (which could result in inflammation)
List some secondary complications produced by CHF?
(1) Pulmonary hemorrhage (erythrocytes in alveoli)
(2) Pleural effusion
(3) Nutmeg liver
(4) Dead erythrocytes in alveoli (hemosiderin laden cells)
3 types of hemorrhages?
Petechiae, Purpura and Ecchymoses
Smalles hemorrhage category?

Caused by...
Petechiase

<2mm

Due to abnormality involving either platlets or blood vessels.
Purpura

Ecchymoses; caused by...
Purple spots. >2mm and <1cm.

>1cm. Usually due to trauma.
What are pro-coagulation effects of EC?
(1) Activates coagulation cascade - producing Thromboplastin (TF)
(2) Stimulates platlet adhesion - via vWF and PAF
(3) Inhibits fibrinolysis by producing t-PA inhibitor.
Bernard Soulier disease
Decreased GpIb disease.
2 secondary messenger systems of platlet activation?
(1) Gp1b activating PLA2, which produces Thromboxane from Arachidonic acid.

(2) Thromboxane, ADP and Thrombin stimulate PLC producing IP3 (which increase intracellular Ca) and DAG (which produces PKC to release various ganules)
How does IP3 effect platlets?

How does DAG effect platlets?
IP3 - Increase intracellular calcium changing platlet's shape and leads to platlet aggregation.

DAG - release granules via PKC (alpha granule-Fibrinogen, PDGF --- dense bodies-ADP and more)
Describe what normal densitometer curve looks like?
It has 2 phases, lower curve means less scatter of light and great clotting of platlets.

Phase1 - In response to substance that was added (collagen)

Phase2 - In response to platlets releasing subtances (such as the ones in the dense bodies)
Primary reasons for hypercoagulbable state?
3 chicken sandwiches and 5 hearty poppers.

Deficiency of Antithrombin III, protein C and S
Mutant Coag factor V
Increase of Homocysteine and Prothrombin.
Secondary reasons for hypercoagulable state?
HIL

Heparin (HIT and HITT - Do not give patient Platlets)

Immobilization, Trauma/burns, Pregnancy, Cancer, Smoking, Birth-control pills

Lupus Anticoagulant (aka antiphospholipid syndrome) - Antibodies against phospholipids; they make platlets sticky.
Phlegmasia Alba Dolens
postpartum thrombosis of iliofemoral vein by gravid uterus
What is a saddle emboli?
Large embolus that obstructs the bifurcation of the pulmonary arteries and causes sudden death
The bends
Acute disease of air emboli
Caisson's Disease
Chronic disease of air emboli
Two different types of infarcts?
Red (torsion of ovaries, testes, arterial occlusion in loose tissue, congested tissue or tissue with dual blood supply)

White (due to arterial occlusion in solid organs)
Waterhouse Fredrickson Syndrome

Caused by..
Bi-lateral hemorrhaging infarction of adrenals

Caused by...N Mengingitidis infection
3 drugs to treat Shock?
Dobutamine- Increase heart contractility (beta1 agonist)

Dopamine - At low levels, keep kidney perfused

NE - Alpha1 agonist, Causes peripheral vasoconstriction