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33 Cards in this Set

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Infectivity
The ability of a pathogen to establish infection.
Virulence
Damage done by the pathogen once the infection is established.
Pathogenicity
The ability of a pathogen to cause disease in another organism and the degree to which it is able to cause disease.
Modes of infection
1) surface of mucosal epithelium, 2) epithelial cells, 3) deeper tissues- circulatory system
Local infection
A specific portion of the body is infected.
Systemic infection
An infection throughout the body; the infection resides in the bloodstream.
Focal infection
A systemic infection that starts off as a local infection.
Primary infection
One species is able to weaken the host.
Secondary infection
Occurs because a primary infection has weakened the host.
Mixed Infection
Infection by more than one organism simultaneously.
Subclinical infection
An asymptomatic infection (not apparent)
Latent infection
Becomes apparent when resistance is lowered
Bacteremia,septicemia, pyemia, toxemia
bacteria ciruculating in the blood, replicating bacteria in blood, pus forming bacteria in blood, bacterial toxins in the blood.
Prodromal period
1st symptoms occur. The patient starts to get sick. The disease may end here due to aquired immunity.
Primary pathogen
cause disease is a least some portion of normal individuals
Opportunists
cause disease in individuals with low immunity
Hemolysins
Destroy blood cells
Hyaluronidase
Allows for the spread through connective tissue.
Coagulase
Coagulates plasma
Streptokinase/ fibinolysin
Dissolves plasma
Lysozyme (secreted as a first life of defense against infection)
an enzyme that is destructive of bacteria and functions as an antiseptic, found in tears, leukocytes, mucus, egg albumin, and certain plants.
Lactoferrin
synthesized by neutrophils and glandular epithelial cells, found in many human secretions (as tears and milk), and retarding bacterial and fungal growth
2nd line of defense: non immunologic
Inflammation and phagocytosis
2nd line of defense: immunologic
Antibody and cell mediated immunity
Monocytes
Any of various large white blood cells that are formed in the bone marrow, circulate in the blood, and destroy pathogenic bacteria by phagocytosis. Monocytes develop into macrophages in various body tissues.
Granulocytes
Any of various white blood cells that contain granular material in the cytoplasm and are immunologically active, especially in phagocytosis. (neutrophils)
Lymphocytes
Any of the nearly colorless cells found in the blood, lymph, and lymphoid tissues, constituting approximately 25 percent of white blood cells and including B cells, which function in humoral immunity, and T cells, which function in cellular immunity.
Phagocytic killing: oxygen dependent killing
NADPH oxidase reacts with cytochrome B which forms hydrogen peroxide and other substances. This transforms chloride ions into hypochlorous ions killing the microbe.
Phagocytic killing: Oxygen independent killing
lysozyme/ lactoferrin kill gram negative organism by disrupting the cell membrane.
Antigen
Any substance that will produce a specific immune response when introduced into a host.
Adjuvant
An immunological agent that increases the antigenic response.
Antibody
Serum proteins formed in response to antigen stimulation. They react with antigens in a specific manner.
Epitopes
A localized region on the surface of an antigen that is capable of eliciting an immune response and of combining with a specific antibody to counter that response.