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125 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A change in the structure and orientation of cells, characterized by a loss of differentiation and reversion to a more primitive form. This is a characteristic of malignancy.

- Mosby's dictionary
Anaplasia
Any variation in chromosome number that involves individual chromosomes rather htan entire sets of chromosomes. There may be fewer chromosomes or more. Such individuals have various abnormal physiologic and morphologic traits.

- Mosby's dictionary
Aneuploidy
The formation of new blood vessels. A process controlled by chemicals produced in the body that stimulate blood vessels or form new ones. This process plays an important role in the growth and spread of cancer, but also occurs in the healthy body for healing of wounds and restoring blood flow to tissue after injury.

- Mosby's dictionary
Angiogenesis
General ill health and malnutrition, marked by weakness and emaciation, usually associated with severe disease, such as tuberculosis or cancer.

- Mosby's dictionary
Cachexia (also called cachexy)
A substance or agent that causes the development or increases the incidence of cancer.

- Mosby's dictionary
Carcinogenic
Localized tissue death that occurs as a result of a blood clot blocking the flow of blood and causing tissue ischemia distal to the clot.

- Mosby's dictionary
Coagulative necrosis
differentiation
need definition
Dominant
need definition
A glycoprotein hormone synthesized mainly in the kidneys and released into the bloodstream in response to anoxia. The hormone acts to stimulate and regulate the production of red blood cells and thus increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

- Mosby's dictionary
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Etiology
need definition
Gangrene
need definition
The branch of anatomy that deals with the minute (microscopic) structure, composition, and function of cells and tissue.

- Porth, glossary
Histology or histologic
Homozygous
need definition
Heterozygous
need definition
Without a known cause.

- Mosby's dictionary
Idiopathic
Jaundice
need definition
Local Manifestations
need definition
MCV
Red cell indices are used to differentiate types of anemias by size or color of red cells. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) reflects the volume or size of the red cells. The MCV falls in in microcytic (small cell) anemia and rises in macrocytic (large cell) anemia.

- Porth, page 283
MCH
Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH) refers to the mass of the red cell and is less useful in classifying anemias.

- Porth, page 283
MCHC
The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is the concentration of hemoglobin in each cell. Hemoglobin accounts for the colorof red blood cells. Anemias are described as normochromic (normal color or MCHC) or hypochromic (decreased color or MCHC).

- Porth, page 283
Monosomy
One copy of a chromosome, in place of a normal pair, the result of nondisjuncture.

- Review Sheet
Localized tissue death that occurs in groups of cells in response to disease or injury.

- Mosby's dictionary
Necrosis
Normochromic
Erythrocytes of normal hemolobin content and thus normal in color.

- Review Sheet
An ordinary, normal adult red blood cell of average size having a diameter of 7 µm.

- Mosby's dictionary
Normocyte
A potentially cancer-inducing gene. Under normal conditions such genes play a role in the growth and proliferation of cells, but when altered in some way by a cancer-causing agent they may cause the cell to be transformed to a malignant state.

- Mosby's dictionary
Oncogene
Paraneoplastic
need definition
Point mutation
need def
Polyploidy
need def
Platelet
need def
Pleomorphic
need def
Primary Prevention
need def
Pronto-oncogene
need def
Recessive
need def
Secondary Prevention
need def
Systemic Manifestations
need def
Telomere
need def
Teritiary Prevention
need def
Tetraploidy
need def
Transferrin
need def
Translocation
need def
Trisomy
need def
Tumor suppressor gene
need def
Adaptive Cellular Changes - atrophy
Decrease in the size of the cell.

- Review Sheet
Adaptive Cellular Changes - hypertrophy
Increase in cell size.

- Review Sheet
Adaptive Cellular Changes - hyperplasia
An abnormal multiplication or increase in the number of normal cells of a body part.

- Review Sheet
Adaptive Cellular Changes - metaplasia
Changing of one cell type to another.

- Review Sheet
Adaptive Cellular Changes - dysplasia
The alteration in size, shape, and organization of adult cell types.

- Review Sheet
Need S/S
Turner Syndrome
Need s/s
Thrombocytopenia
Need s/s
Thalassemia
Need s/s
Sickle Cell Anemia
Need s/s
Klinefelter Syndrome
Need s/s
Fetal ETOH Syndrome
A complication of a wide variety of conditions that is characterized by widespread coagulation and bleeding in the vascular compartment.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

- Porth, page 275
Need s/s
Alzheimer’s
The source or cause of an illness or abnormal condition. The sequence of cellular and tissue events that take place from the time of initial contact until the ultimate expression of the disease:

a) Etiology
b) Pathogenesis
c) Morphology
d) Clinical Course
b) Pathogenesis

- Porth, page 3
The cause of the disease. Could include bilogic agents, physical forces, chemical agents, and nutritional excesses or deficits.

a) Etiology
b) Pathogenesis
c) Morphology
d) Clinical Course
a) Etiology

- Porth, page 3
The fundamental structure or form of cells or tissues.

a) Etiology
b) Pathogenesis
c) Morphology
d) Clinical Course
c) morphology

- Porth, page 3
The evolution of the disease.

a) Etiology
b) Pathogenesis
c) Morphology
d) Clinical Course
d) Clinical Course

- Porth, page 5
A subjective complaint that is noted by the person with a disorder.

- Porth, page 3
Symptom
Objective clinical manifestation noted by the observer.

- Porth, page 3
Sign
A pathologic or traumatic discontinuity of a body organ or tissue.

- Porth, page 3
Lesion
A compilaton of signs and symptoms that are characteristic of a specific disease state is a/an _____.

- Porth, page 4
Syndrome
The quality of data obtained to make a diagnosis is judged for validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value.

_____ refers to the extent to which a measurement tool measures what it is intended to measure.

- Port, page 4
Validity
The quality of data obtained to make a diagnosis is judged for validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value.

_____ refers to the extent to which an observation, if repeated, gives the same result.

- Porth, page 4
Reliability
The quality of data obtained to make a diagnosis is judged for validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value.

_____ refers to the proportion of people with a disease who are positive for that disease on a given test (true-positive).

- Porth, page 4
Sensitivity
The quality of data obtained to make a diagnosis is judged for validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value.

_____ refers to the proportion of people without a disease who are negative on a given test or observation (true-negative).

- Port, page 4
Specificity
The quality of data obtained to make a diagnosis is judged for validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value.

_____ refers to the propextent to which an obswervation or test result is able to predict the prescence of a given disease or condition.

- Port, page 4
Predictive Value
Most cancer-associated genes increase the risk of cancer through overactivity or underactivity.

Proto-oncogenes can mutate into cancer-causing _____. Overactivity increases growth-factor dependent signaling.

Underactivity of tumor-supressor genes creates an environment in which cancer is promoted.
Oncogenes

- Porth, page 169
Most cancer-associated genes increase the risk of cancer through overactivity or underactivity.

Proto-oncogenes can mutate into cancer-causing oncogenes. Overactivity increases growth-factor dependent signaling.

Underactivity of _____ genes creates an environment in which cancer is promoted.
Tumor-supressor

- Porth, page 169
Cancer spreads through three pathways. they are:
1) Direct invasion and extension
2) seeding in body cavities
3) Vascular or Lymphatic pathways

- Porth, page 166 - 168
The position of a gene on a chromosome is called its _____, and alternate forms of a gene at the same position are called _____.
locus
alleles

- Porth, page 125
Trisomy 21 is also known as _____ and can include some degree of mental retardation, retarded growth, flat facial profile, epicanthal folds, small low-set ears, and large protruding tongue.
Down Syndrome

- Porth, pages 142-143
Having an abnormal number of chromosomes is referred to as _____.
Aneuploidy

- Porth, page 142
_____ refers to the presence of only one member of a chromosome pair. The defects are severe and usually cause abortion.
Monosomy

- Porth, page 142
_____ is the presence of more than two chromosomes to a set and occurs when when a germ cell containing more than 23 chromosomes is involved in conception.
Polysomy

- Porth, page 142
A _____ agent is a chemical, physical, or biological agent that produces abnormalities during embryonic or fetal development.
Teratogenic

- Porth, page 147
_____-soluble drugs tend to cross the placenta more readily and enter the fetal circulation.
Lipid

- Porth, page 147
Drugs with a molecular weight of _____ 500 can cross the placenta easily, depending on lipid-solubility and degree of ionization.

(less than or greater than)
Less than

- Porth, page 147
The stage of development of the embryo determines the susceptibility to teratogens. The period during which the embryo is most susceptible to teratogenic agents is the time during which rapid differentiation and development of body organs and tissues are taking place, usually from days ___ to ___ postconception.
15 to 60

- Porth, page 149 (box)
Many microorganisms cross the placenta and enter the fetal circulation. The cronym TORCH can be used to remember them. What does TORCH stand for?
T oxoplasmosis
O ther
R ubella (measles)
C ytomegalovirus
H erpes

- Porth, page 150
Penetrance is the percentage in a population with a particular genotype in which that genotype is phenotypically manifested, whereas _____ is the manner in which the gene is expressed.
Expressivity

- Porth, page 125 (box)
Folic acid deficiency has been proven to lead to _____.
Neural tube defects

- Porth, page 150
_____ is a protozoal infection caused by eating infected meat or coming in contact with infected feces from cats.
Toxoplasmosis

- Porth, page 150
Gametes (ovum and sperm) are _____, having only one set of chromosomes from each parent.
Haploid

- Porth, page 160
After fusion, the ovum and sperm form a somatic cell that is _____ (containing both sets of chromosomes).
Diploid

- Porth, page 160
_____ is the percentage in a population with a particular genotype in which that genotype is phenotypically manifested, whereas expressivity is the manner in which the gene is expressed.
Penetrance

- Porth, page 125 (box)
_____ can mutate into cancer-causing genes in which overactivity increases growth-factor dependent signaling.
Proto-oncogenes

- Porth, page 169
Adenocarcinoma is a malignant tumor of _____ cells.

- Review Sheet
epithelial
_____ is a benign tumor of glandular epithelium cells.

- Review Sheet
Adenoma
_____ is a neoplasm’s loss of differentiation.

- Review Sheet
Anaplasia
System of substances transported in the opposite direction.

- Review Sheet
Antiport
_____ is a unique term used to describe carcinomas that are confined to the epithelium and have not yet penetrated the basement membrane.

- Review Sheet
Carcinoma in situ
True or False? The exact causes of sudden infant death syndrome are not known.

- Chapter 2 pretest
True
True or False? Newborn infants are at particular risk of hyperglycemia.

- Chapter 2 pretest
False
Infants born before _____ weeks’ gestation are considered premature.

- Chapter 2 pretest
37
The _____ score is used to evaluate infant well-being at birth.

- Chapter 2 pretest
Apgar (performed at 1 minute and 5 minutes).
The _____ scale ranks heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color on a scale of 0, 1, or 2.

- Chapter 2 pretest
Apgar
Irritable infant syndrome, or _____, involves unusual abdominal pain and cramping and excessive crying by an infant.

- Chapter 2 pretest
Colic
Failure to _____ refers to inadequate growth of the child due to the inability to obtain or use essential nutrients.

- Chapter 2 pretest
Thrive
Tobacco and drug use are associated with intrauterine growth _____.

- Chapter 2 pretest
Retardation
_____ is a manifestation of hyperbilirubinemia that is visible in the skin tone of an infant.

- Chapter 2 pretest
Jaundice
Measles, mumps, hepatitis B, and other diseases can all be prevented by _____ during childhood.

- Chapter 2 pretest
Immunization
The changes in the immune function of older adults are known as _____.

- Chapter 3 pretest
Immunosenescence
The leading cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults is _____ disease.

- Chapter 3 pretest
Cardiovascular
Largely as a result of a low-fiber diet, more than half of adults over 80 have _____ disease present in their colon.

- Chaper 3 pretest
Diverticular
_____ is a syndrome of acquired, persistent cognitive impairment.

- Chapter 3 pretest
Dementia
The fact that older adults often require multiple medications for multiple health problems, or _____, increases their risk of drug interactions.

- Chapter 3 pretest
Polypharmacy
Cell death in an organ or tissue that is still part of a living person is known as _____.

- Chapter 5 pretest
Necrosis
_____ gangrene is caused by certain varieties of Clostridium bacteria.

- Chapter 5 pretest
Gas
70% to 85% of a cell’s protoplasm consists of _____.

- Chapter 4 pretest
Water
The main process that occurs in ribosomes is _____.

- Chapter 4 pretest
Protein synthesis
_____ tissue covers the body’s outer surface and lines internal closed cavities.

- Chapter 4 pretest
Epithelial
Types of muscle include smooth, cardiac, and _____.

- Chapter 4 pretest
Skeletal
The nitrogenous bases of DNA include thymine, cytosine, adenine, and _____.

- Chapter 6 pretest
Guanine
Cells contain messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and _____ RNA.

- Chapter 6 pretest
Ribosomal
Most of a cell’s genetic information is contained in intracellular structures known as _____.

- Chapter 6 pretest
Chromosomes
The _____ refers to the recognizable traits associated with a particular genotype.

- Chapter 6 pretest
Phenotype
The location of a gene on a chromosome is known as the gene's _____.

- Chapter 6 pretest
Locus
Single-gene disorders are the result of a mutant _____ at one gene locus.

- Chapter 7 pretest
Allele
If a genetic trait is expressed in the heterozygote, the trait is said to be _____.

- Chapter 7 pretest
Dominant
_____ inheritance disorders are caused by multiple genes and environmental factors.

- Chapter 7 pretest
Multifactorial
Trisomy 21 is more commonly known as _____.

- Chapter 7 pretest
Down syndrome
The withdrawal of fluid from the pregnant uterus for testing is known as _____.

- Chapter 7 pretest
Amniocentesis
A _____ agent is one that produces abnormalities during fetal or embryonic life.

- Chapter 7 pretest
Teratogenic