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60 Cards in this Set

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dysplasia
deranged cellular growth observable in uterine cervical epithelium;
abnormal changes in the size, shape, and organization of cells
metaplasia
rplacement of one mature cell by another, sometimes less differentiated, cell type
hyperplasia
increase in the number of cells
carbon monoxide causes what?
asphyxiation
ultimate injury caused by carbon monoxide?
hypoxic injury
lead poisoning causes?
neurotransmitter interference
lead interferes with the functions of what?
calcium
manifestations of lead poisoning
convulsions and delirium
acute alcoholism affects?
CNS
chronic alcoholism affects?
liver
physiologic changes that occur during heat exhaustion
profound vasodilation
profuse sweating
dehydration
hypotension
decreased cardiac output
tachycardia
who is recommended for amniocentesis?
women older than 35 years
pregnancies in which parents are known to carry translocation of certain disease genes
which disease is caused by an abnormal karyotype?
down syndrome
down syndrome occurs because?
nondisjunction of older ova
down syndrome is trisomy of which chromosome?
21
symptoms of down syndrome
low nasal bridge
epicanthal folds
protruding tongue
flat, low-set ears
sickle cell is what kind of gene disorder?
autosomal recessive
in a dominant disease, affected offspring are produced by a union of what?
a normal parent with an affected heterozygous parent
do dominant diseases have carriers?
no
recurrence risk for dominant disease
50%
most common recessive disease
cystic fibrosis
do recessive diseases have carriers?
yes
people who commit consanguinity are at highest risk for what kind of disease?
recessive
recurrence risk for recessive disease if both parents are carriers
25%
why do males affected with a sexlinked disease not pass the trait on to their sons?
the x comes from their mother
recurrence risk for a daughter inheriting a sexlinked disease from her affected father?
100%
familial diseases
breast cancer, alzheimer's disease, hypercholesterolemia, melanoma, parkinson's disease, colon cancer
risk factor for diabetes type 1
viral infections
risk factors for diabetes type 2
family history and obesity
risk of developing colorectal cancer
high fat, low fiber diet
by what age should a man be screened by colonoscopy?
50
sequence of general adaptation syndrome
increased ACTH in blood, hypertrophy of adrenal cortex
characteristic of GAS
adenocortical enlargement
GAS triad of changes
enlargement of adrenal cortex
atrophy of thymus gland
bleeding ulcer in stomach and duodenum
increased sympathetic activity occurs in what stage of stress?
stage 1 alarm
glucocorticoids are highest during which stage of stress?
stage 3 exhaustion
where does norepinephrine contribute to pain inhibition?
pons & medulla
norepinephrine primary function
regulates blood pressure by constricting peripheral vessels
epinephrine primary function
controls cardiac action - increases cardiac output and blood pressure
injection of epinephrine into healthy human increases...
t cytotoxic cells
natural killer cells
epinephrine increases body temperature by:
increasing production by causing glycolysis and increased metabolic rates
cortisol affects the catabolism of what?
proteins
the production of cortisol in response to stress can be initiated by:
the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and adrenal cortex
primary function of cortisol
stimulation of gluconeogenesis
major sleep center is located where?
hypothalamus
by what age should a man be screened by colonoscopy?
50
sequence of general adaptation syndrome
increased ACTH in blood, hypertrophy of adrenal cortex
characteristic of GAS
adenocortical enlargement
GAS triad of changes
enlargement of adrenal cortex
atrophy of thymus gland
bleeding ulcer in stomach and duodenum
increased sympathetic activity occurs in what stage of stress?
stage 1 alarm
glucocorticoids are highest during which stage of stress?
stage 3 exhaustion
where does norepinephrine contribute to pain inhibition?
pons & medulla
norepinephrine primary function
regulates blood pressure by constricting peripheral vessels
epinephrine primary function
controls cardiac action - increases cardiac output and blood pressure
injection of epinephrine into healthy human increases...
t cytotoxic cells
natural killer cells
epinephrine increases body temperature by:
increasing production by causing glycolysis and increased metabolic rates
cortisol affects the catabolism of what?
proteins
the production of cortisol in response to stress can be initiated by:
the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and adrenal cortex
primary function of cortisol
stimulation of gluconeogenesis
major sleep center is located where?
hypothalamus