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19 Cards in this Set

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Increased pancreatic function tests
Pancreatitis
Increased serum enzymes
Liver dysfunction
Decreased serum proteins
Liver dysfunction
Increased clotting times
Liver dysfunction
Increased indirect bilirubin
Hemolytic or liver disease
Increased direct bilirubin
Gallstones
Insulin
Inhibits gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and ketogenesis

Decreases blood glucose

Stimulated by hyperglycemia

PNS stimulation
Glucagon
Stimulates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis

Increases glucose

Stimulated by hypoglycemia

SNS stimulation
Diagnostic factors of diabetes
More than 1 fasting blood glucose over 126 mg/dl

Blood glucose levels following an OGTT of over 200 mg/dl with confirmation on a subsequent day

Random blood glucose levels of over 200 mg/dl with classic symptoms
Classic symptoms of diabetes
Polyuria

Polydipsia

Polyphagia

Other symptoms: weight loss and fatigue
Polyuria
Glucose level exceeds the renal threshold for glucose causing glucose to spill over into the urine

An osmotic diuresis occurs as glucose pulls water to be excreted in the urine
Polydipsia
Water is osmotically attracted from body cells resulting in intracellular dehydration

The thirst center in the hypothalamus is triggered
Polyphagia
Depletion of of cellular stores of carbs, fats, and proteins

Cellular starvation with triggering of hunger
Type I diabetes
Insulin dependent

Juvenile onset

Immune type (type II or IV): immunologically mediated destruction of beta cells

Non-immune type

Beta cell destruction results

Non-obese
Type II diabetes
Non-insulin dependent

Adult onset

Cellular resistance to the effects of insulin following years of hyperinsulinemia

Degeneration of beta cells

Obesity
Clinical manifestations of type II diabetes
Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia

Recurrent infections

Visual changes

Parathesias

Genital pruritis
Hypoglycemia
Excess insulin

Excess oral hypoglycemic medications

Excessive exercise

Insufficient food intake

Neurologic and SNS symptoms
Neurologic symptoms r/t decreased glucose to the brain
Headache, visual changes

Confusion, difficulty concentrating, irritability

Tremors, seizure

Coma, death
Hyperglycemia
Deficit of insulin

Deficit or oral hypoglycemic drugs

Deficit of exercise

Excess of food

Stress response

Diabetes symptoms