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155 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An allergy is an immune response to an environmental antigen. T or F
What describes a disturbance in the body's normal tolerance for self antigens?
Most cases of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States result from?
Injection & body fluids during sexual intercourse
What is a hypersensitivity response associated with antigens from another person?
Iatrogenic deficiencies are cuase by?
Medical treatment
Common allergic and anaphylactic responses are caused by which immunoglobulin (antibody)?
What is consistent with an IgE-mediated response to antigens?
Reexposure to an tantigen with many antibodies binding
The type of immunity that causes rejection of donated organs is?
A treatment for a patient suffering B cell deficiencies that cause antibody deficiencies is?
Gamma globulin therapy
Severe combined immune deficiency is caused by a lack of?
Stem cells
The hormone released i nthe greates quantity by the adrenal medulla is norepinephrine. T or F
Stimulation of the alpha 1 receptors will cause?
Simulation of the alpha 2 receptors will cause?
An otherwise healthy person who faces a stressful illness with an effective coping strategy is most likely to?
return to normal
What are the results for an incresed systemic cortisol?
Immunosuppresion, increased protein synthesis, increased gastric secretions
Homeostasis can be described as a constantly changing yet steady environment. T or F
The continual synthesis and breakdown of body substances that results in homeostasis is?
What catecholamine is released in response to sympathetic stimulation?
Adrenalin, norepinephrine, & noradrenalin
What is release by bacterial cells during their growth?
The body's three chief lines of defense against infection and injury?
Anatomic barriers, inflammatory response, & immune response
The body's immune response against infection is considered?
External, internal, specific, & nonspecific responses
The immune response to infection develops more rapidly than the inflammatory response?
What are more like plants than animals and rarely cause serious human disease?
What is a single cell organisms consisting of cytoplasm surrounded by a rigid cell membrane?
The body's anatomical barrier against infection (the skin and linings of the respiratory and digestive systems) is considered?
An external, nonspecific barrier
Under the ABO classification system, the universal blood donor is identified as having blood type?
Individuals with which blood type would have the anit-A antibody?
B & C
In order for an antigen to trigger an immune response, the antigen must have what charateristics?
Sufficient foreignness, sufficient size, sufficient complexity, & sufficient amounts
The antigens that help the body recognize a substance as "self" or "non-self" ar ecalled HLA (human leukocyte antigens) antigens? T or F
Antigens that can trigger the immune response are called immunogens. T or F
B lymphocytes perform what?
Producing antibodies, confering long term immunity, developing memory, & precipitation
T lymphocytes does what?
Directly attack and destroy foreign antigen-bearing cells
Humoral immunity refers to?
Long lasting antibodies and memory cells
What type of immunity is genetic?
Natual immunity requires ___ in order to function?
A genetic makeup
A mother passing her antibodies to her baby is an example of?
Passive acquired immunity
Proteins located on the surgace of many substances that enter the body and are used during the immune response to identify foreign organisms are?
True statement about RH blood group.
The RH antigens cross the placental barrier at delivery
Chronic inflammation is any inflammation that lasts longer than two?
Debridement involves?
Dissolution of fibrin cells
Degranulation is the process by which ___ empty granules fro their interior into the extracellular environment?
Mast cells
Degranulation of mast cells in initiated by?
Physical injury, immunology process, & chemical agents
The functions of exudates include?
Dilute toxins released by bacteria, Bring plasma proteins an dleukocytes to the attack site, & to carry away waste products of inflammation
Fever can occur when?
Neutrophils and macrophages combine
Fibroblasts are cells that secrete?
Occasionally the body is unable to destroy an invader. A ___ is formed which is a walled off area that isolates the pus-filled region?
Histamine is an example of?
Vasoactive amine
The action of histamine during the inflammatory response is to?
Increase capillary permeability, & increase blood flow to the injured area
What is the action of histmaine release?
Increased blood flow at injury site
Leukotrienes are similar to histamines but are different in that they?
Promote slower and longer lasting effects
Mast cells?
Are the chief activators of inflammation
Mast cells activate the inflammatory response through the two funtions of?
Degranulation and synthesis
What is one of the effects of prostaglandin release?
Increase permeablity, suppressed histamine release, pain, & chemotaxis
Resolution is the?
Restoration of normal structure and function
The best outcome from the wound healing process is?
When mast cells are stimulated, they construct two substances that play important roles in inflammation called ____ and ____ during synthesis?
Prostaglandin, & leukotriene
The attraction of white blood cells to the site of infection is called?
Every human somatic cell contains how many pairs of chromosomes?
Diseases caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors are called?
Multifactorial disorders
Examples of immunologic disorders are?
Rheumatic fever, allergies, asthma
The most common endocrine disorder is?
Diabetes mellitus
The disease caused by genetic clotting factor deficiency is?
A neuromuscular disorder known to be caused by a genetic defect is?
Huntington's disease
The supplying of oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues is called?
Cardiac output is the?
Amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute
The resistance of the vessels to the flow of blood is called?
Afterload, or peripheral vascular resistance
What are the three components of the circulatory system?
Fluid, container, & pump
The dependence on a set of conditions for oxygen movement and utilization is known as?
The Fink principle
One type of shock that results from an inadequate container is?
Characteristics of impaired cellular metabolism in shock include impaired use of?
Your patient has received a large traumatic injury. Blood pressure is normal, but the heart rate and respiratory rate are increased, and the skin is cool and clammy. Your patient is in what type of shock?
Compensated shock
A drop in blood pressure in the patient that is experiencing shock is called?
Decompensated shock
Treatment for pulmonary edema with cardiogenic shock should include?
Elevating the patient's head and shoulders
The type of shock resulting from arteries losing tone and dilating is known as?
Neurogenic shock
The progessive impairment of two or more organ systems resulting from an uncontrolled inflammatory response to as severe illness or injury is called?
Multiple organ dysfuntion syndrome (MODS)
The most common presentation of MODS within the first 24 hours after resusciation includes?
General hypermetabolic state
MODS begins with?
What type of shcok matches a patient with pulmonary edema?
What type of shock has a patient presentation with warm and red skin?
What type of shock has a ptient with itching and flushed skin?
What type of shock has a patient with a history of recent illness?
What type of shock has patients that present with hives?
What type of shock has a patient with a high fever?
What type of shock has patients that present with classic signs of shock?
What type of shock presents with laryngeal edema as a complication?
What type of shock has patients that present with dry skin?
What type of shock has patients with a history of diarrhea?
In the nucleus of your muscle cells, you have ___ chromosomes?
Hypertension is a risk factor for what?
Stroke, Kidney disease, & cardiovascular disease
What percentage of lung cancers in women are associated with smoking?
70 percent
People with genetic predispositions to certain diseases can frequently take action that modify the risk factors associated with acquiring the disease. T or F
Obesity is defined as having a body weight that is ober ideal body weight by?
20 percent
The death rate from disease is reported as its?
The risk of acquiring heart disease for a person with a familial history of coronary artery disease is how many times greater than for someone without such a family history?
Hypoperfusion may occur with?
Low heart rate, dilated vascular container, reduced blood volume, & excessive afterload
When baroreceptors detect a fall in blood pressure, they cause?
Increase in the strength of myocardial contraction
The stretching of the myocardial wall increases the strength of cardiac contractionin the mechanism known as?
The Frank-Starling mechanism
A patient was shot in the abdomen and has a resultant massive hemorrhage and hypoperfusion. Intravenous therapy would help treat the hypoperfusion by?
Increasing preload
Hypoperfusion results in?
Hypoxia, carbon dioxide build up, & acidosis
A patient is presenting with hypotension, tachycardia, an dabsent radial pulses. What type of shock is this?
The process by which glycogen is converted into glucose in the cells is?
Death from MODS usually occurs after?
21 days
The cardiovascular container includes?
Arteries, veins, & arterioles
The first evidence of MODS usually presents within?
24 Hours
What are the conditions on which oxygen movement and utilization depends as described by the Fink Principle?
Adequate concentration of inspired oxygen, proper tissue perfusion, & efficient off-loading of oxygen at the tissue level
A patient is presenting with hypoperfusion, bradycardia, and warm, dry skin below the injury site. What is the most likely cause of this?
Interruption of spinal nerve transmission
The second stage of cellular metabolism that breaks glucose down into energy that can be used by the body requires the presence of?
The stage of shock in which medical intervention is no longer effective is?
Irreversible shock
What type of shock is characterized by hypotension, tachycardia, and laryngeal edema?
The arteriole has the ability to change its diameter up to fivfold. T or F
The final common pathway of MODS is?
impairment of two or more organ systems
The Kreb's cycle produces a chemical energy form used by the body that is called?
Adenosine triphosphate
What type of shock is due to plasma loss from burns?
The oxygen concentration in air within the alveoli is approximately?
14 percent
The nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and lysomes are five of the cell's most important?
The thick viscous fluid that fills the cell and gives it shape is called?
Cytoplasm, or protoplasm
The term that is applied to the building up and tearing down of biochemical substances to produce energy is?
The body's major baroreceptors are located in the?
Arch of the aorta
The process in which the size of a cell decreases as a result of a decreasign workload is known as?
What are the types of necrosis?
fatty, liquefactive, coagualtive, caseous
A positively charged ion is a?
A solution that contains more solute concentration on one side of a semipermeable membrane than on the other is said to be?
What blood components are responsible for a portion of the clotting process?
Plasma, & platelets
The most prevalent cation in the human body is?
A common cause of metabolic alkalosis is the administration of?
The cellular environment of the human body is slighty acidic. T or F
Plasma is made up of approximately what percentage of water?
92 percent
An electrolyte solution of sodium chloride in water is?
Normal saline
Intravenouse fluids that contain proteins are called?
An increase in the number of cells resulting from an increased workload is known as?
The most common cause of cellular injury is oxygen deficiency, or?
Any charged atomic particle is called?
A major element of the body's atoms is?
The chemical notation for sodium chloride is?
The body mechanisms working to reverse, or to compensate for, a pathophysiological process are known as a?
Negative feedback loop
Dehydration may be caused by internal losses such as?
Bowel obstruction
When a solution on one side of a semipermeable membreane is hypotonic it?
Has a lesser concentration of solute molecules
The pressure exerted by the concentration of solues on one side of a semipermeable membrane is?
Osmotic pressure
Edema is excess fluid in the?
Interstitial space
The fluid outside the body cells is called?
extracellular fluid
The total amount of water lost from blood plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space is called?
Net filtration
A group of tissues functioning together is called?
The type of muscle tissue found encircling blood vessels is?
Smooth muscle
The principle buffer of the body is?
Impaired ventilation is the cause of?
Respiratory acidosis
A high concentration of hydrogen ions is known as?
Vomiting, diarrhea, or diabetes can cause?
Metabolic acidosis
The sum of all the cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems of a living being is called?
The basic structural unit of all plants and animals is the?
The body organ system that produces most body heat is?
The body organ system that is important in fighting disease and filtration is the?
The feedback system that decreases stimulation as the target organ responds is the?
Negative feedback loop
Ductless or endocrine glands secrete directly into the circulatory system. T or F
The "dance with death" is a phrase associated with which signs of shock?
Tachycardia, and hypotension
Necrosis means?
cell death