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16 Cards in this Set

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3 typical stages of ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME
Prodromal Phase
nausea, vomiting, anorexia, headache, prostration, malaise, etc..

usually appears within six hours
<2 hrs: (dose likely >200 rem)

rem > 400 (persists for several days)
rem > 600 (prodromal phase merges w/ manifest illness)
at what rem levels to symptoms appear?
50 rem: symptoms in some
100 rem: symptoms in most
200 rem: symptoms in all

400 rem: prodromal phase lasts for several days
600 rem: prodromal phase merges with manifest illness stage
unplanned radiation exposures
1. Irradiation Facilities
2. Nuclear Reactors & Isotope production
3. Isotope Production Facilities
4. Materials Testing (sealed sources & x-rays)
5. X-ray and Radiotherapy Devices (medicine,
6. Unsealed Radionuclides (medicine, research)
Terrorist activities
unit of radiological ACTIVITY
Ci (Curie)

SI unit = SV (Sievert)
unit of radiological EXPOSURE
R (Roentgen)

SI unit = Bq (Becquierel)
unit of absorbed radiation

SI unit = Gy (Gray)
What is the "dose" of background radiation experienced in a year?
2.5 mSv
~1.5 mSv/y from radon (high-LET; alpha radiation)
~1.0 mSv/y (low-LET; beta and gamma radiation)
what percentage of background radiation is "man-made"?
-how much of that is medical?
18% of radiation is "man-made"
-79% of that is medical
-1% is related to the nuclear fuel cycle
What is the protective standard of radiation of acceptable radiation for:
-the general public?
-the worker?
general public: 1 mSv/y
worker: 50 mSv/y (100 mSv/5 y)
What is a "low-dose" of radiation
<0.1 Sv (<100mSv)
Types of ionizing radiation
Alpha Particles: (stopped by paper)
Beta Particles: (stopped by clothing)
Gamma Rays (stopped by thick concrete or <1 inch of lead)
alpha particles are ejected from
nuclei of very heavy radioactive atoms
injested particles can damage tissue
unlikely patient would be contaminated with alpha particles
beta particles
electron ejected from the nucleus of a radiactive atom
only moderately penetrating
possible damage to skin or if internally deposited
gamma rays and x-rays
-can travel how far?
photoms, able to travel many feet in air and many inches in human tissue
= penetrating radiation
protective clothing, little help other than prevention of skin damage
what is a rad?
basic unit of radiation dose

defined as: deposition of 0.01 joule of energy (a small amount) per kilogram (kg) of tissue.