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53 Cards in this Set

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What are the 2 major groups of parasites?
1. Protozoa
2. Helminths
T or F.

Except for the Guinea Worm, there are no vaccines available for any human parasitic disease.
TRUE.
Parasites usually cause _______ infections.
Latent.
What group of parasites are unicellular and microscopic?
Protozoa
Can protozoa be either extracellular or intracellular?
YES.
What kind of immunity responds to extracellular protozoans?

What is the exception?
Humoral immunity

EXCEPT for Entamoeba infections --> Th1 response
What kind of immunity responds to intracellular protozoans?

What is the exception?
Cell-mediated immunity

EXCEPT for malaria, which present antigens on the surface of infected RBCs that induce strong ANTIBODY responses.
What are the 3 major groups of protozoans?
1. Amoeba
2. Apicomplexans
3. Kinetoplastids
Name 3 members of the Amoeba group of protozoans.
1. Entamoeba
2. Acanthamoeba
3. Neagleria
Name 6 members of the Apicomplexan group of protozoans.
1. Isospora
2. Toxoplasma
3. Plasmodium
4. Babesia
5. Cyclospora
6. Cryptosporidium

(I SO said, "don't give TOXic PLASMa to a BABy, or it will do CLYCOs in it's CRYP(crib)").
What are the 2 members of the Kinetoplastid protozoans?
1. Leishmania
2. Trypanosomes
"Trophozoites"
Name the stage.
Replicative or infectious
"Tachyzoites"
Name the stage.
Replicative
"Merozoites, Schizonts"
Name the stage
Replicative
"Amastigotes"
Name the stage
Replicative
"Trypomastigotes"
Name the stage
Replicative
"Cysts"
Name the stage.
Infectious
"Sporozoites"
Name the stage.
Infectious
"Promastigotes."
Name the stage
Infectious
"Metacyclic Trypomastigotes"
Name the stage.
Infectious
The stage of parasite identified by microscopy depends on....?
Where the sample comes from
Stool samples most often contain which form of parasite?
(transmissible or replicating)
Transmissible
Tissue/blood samples most often contain which form of parasite?
(transmissible or replicating)
Replicating
If you suspect a parasitic infection that has penetrated the CSF, what lab procedure should you do?
CSF smear
(microscopic examination of cerebral spinal fluid)
You can do this to look for Naegleria fowleri trophozoites--> primary amoebic Meningoencephalitis
What is dangerous about cysts in water?
They can penetrate the nasal mucosa!
What group of parasites are multicellular?
Helminths
T or F.

Helminths are largely extracellular, but some are intracellular.
TRUE.`
What type of immunity responds to helminths?
Th2-driven Humoral immunity
(Eosinophils and basophils are rapidly activated, engaged, and proliferate)
What type of infections is most likely present if a patient has high levels of eosinophils?
Helminth parasitic infection

(basophils may also be present at increased levels)
What are the 3 major groups of Helminths?
1. Cestodes (tapeworms)
2. Trematodes (flukes)
3. Nematodes (round worms)
What group of Helminths use multiple hosts (canines, pigs, arthropods..) to complete their life cycle?
Cestodes (tapeworms)
What group of Helminths all require mollusks to complete their life cycle?
Trematodes (flukes)
What group of Helminths do not always need an intermediate host?
Nematodes (round worms)
If a person steps on a snail and contracts an infection, what type of parasite was most likely contracted?
Trematode (flukes)
Require mollusks to complete life cycle
What group of Helminths only require one host?
("Simple 1 Host)
Nematodes
What group of Helminths can be contracted if a person with bare feet steps in animal feces?
Nematode (round worm)
Ex: Ancylostoma
What group of Helminths should you be cautious of at a beach--either on the shore or in the water?
Trematodes (flukes)
Ex: Schistosoma
Do trematodes require 1 or 2 hosts?
TWO (mollusks --> human/animal)
"Complex 2 Hosts"
What type of Helminth is responsible for Ascariasis?
Nematode (round worm)
"Ascaris lumbricoides"

Complex "loop-the-loop" life cycle
What type of symptoms might a person with Ascariasis experience?
1. Nutritional depletion
2. Intestinal obstruction
3. Intestinal perforation
What group of Helminths can be contracted if a person with bare feet steps in animal feces?
Nematode (round worm)
Ex: Ancylostoma
What group of Helminths should you be cautious of at a beach--either on the shore or in the water?
Trematodes (flukes)
Ex: Schistosoma
Do trematodes require 1 or 2 hosts?
TWO (mollusks --> human/animal)
"Complex 2 Hosts"
What type of Helminth is responsible for Ascariasis?
Nematode (round worm)
"Ascaris lumbricoides"

Complex "loop-the-loop" life cycle
What type of symptoms might a person with Ascariasis experience?
1. Nutritional depletion (weight-loss)
2. Intestinal obstruction (constipation)
3. Intestinal perforation
What group of Helminths can be contracted if a person with bare feet steps in animal feces?
Nematode (round worm)
Ex: Ancylostoma
What group of Helminths should you be cautious of at a beach--either on the shore or in the water?
Trematodes (flukes)
Ex: Schistosoma
Do trematodes require 1 or 2 hosts?
TWO (mollusks --> human/animal)
"Complex 2 Hosts"
What type of Helminth is responsible for Ascariasis?
Nematode (round worm)
"Ascaris lumbricoides"

Complex "loop-the-loop" life cycle
What type of symptoms might a person with Ascariasis experience?
1. Nutritional depletion (weight-loss)
2. Intestinal obstruction (constipation)
3. Intestinal perforation
What symptom is most common (but not always present) with a pinworm infection?
(Pinworm Enterobius vermicularis)
Perianal itching
What type of procedure would be wise to perform if you suspect a pinworm infection?
Colonoscopy
If you diagnose a patient with a pinworm infection, who should you write prescriptions for?

What should you discuss with the family?
EVERYONE IN HIS FAMILY
(Pinworms are HIGHLY transmissible)

Discuss hygeine b/c of easy reinfection. Change clothes, wash sheets, frequent showers, wash hands well.