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37 Cards in this Set

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T/F Trematodes have both male and female reproductive organs in every individual.
You betcha
What is the first intermediate host in the Trematode life cycle?
Snail, either aquatic or land based
what is the second intermediate host in trematodes?

Hint: there are 4 possibilities, 2 are two invertebrates and 2 vertebrates
Invertebrates: Insect or crustacean

vertebrates: Amphibian or fish
In Flukes, what are the two general steps in the life cycle which has one intermediate host?
1. Cercaria penetrate definitive host

2. Cercaria encyst as metacercaria on vegetation and then are ingested by definitive host.
Fasciola hepatica is commonly known as what? How many intermediates does it have?
common liver fluke

1 intermediate host
What are the hosts for the common liver fluke?
Cattle and sheep
In Fasciola hepatica, Which phase of infection has adults living in the bile ducts?
Chronic phase
What disease is associated with acute fascioliasis in sheep?
Black Disease
What are the treatments for common liver flukes?
How many times per year?
Do you treat cattle the same way you treat sheep?
Cattle: Chlorsulon or albendazole
Twice a year
No approved treatment for sheep
Fascioloides magna:

What domestic ruminants are natural hosts for this fluke?
There are none. Natural definitive hosts are deer, elk, and moose.
Fascioloides magna:

There are no signs in cattle, but sheep and goats often die from infection, why?
Flukes are sequestered in cysts in the liver of cattle, but in sheep and goats, the adult worms continuously migrate producing hemorrhage and necrosis of the liver.
Dirocoelium dendriticum:

what is the second intermediate host?

How does this host pick up the parasite and what form is it in?
Ant

The ant ingests the CERCARIAE left in slime balls by snails
Dirocoelim dendriticum:

Where do the adult flukes live?

What are the signs of infection? Why?
Bile duct.

Usually no signs because the flukes do not penetrate the liver.
Dirocoelium dendriticum:

What are the treatments?
benzimidazoles
Prostogonimus:

What are the definitive hosts and what are the two ntermediate hosts?
Definitive: chickens ducks and pheasants

Intermediate: Aquatic snail and dragonfly nymphs.
Is there a treatment for prosthogonimus and if so what is it?
No satisfactory treatment
What are the general stages of life cycles in trematodes.
egg--miracidium--sporocysts--redia(not always, some times multiple)--cercaria--metacercaria
Echinostoma revolutum:

What are the intermediate hosts?
Definitive hosts?
Treatments?
snails--another snail,molluscs,planaria,fish,tadpoles

ducks, aquatic mammals, humans

praziquantal
What is unique about the lifecycle of Echinostoma revolutum?
It has two generations of rediae
true or false:
all Tremetode eggs have an operculum.
Big fat false
Blood flukes:

What is unique about the reproduction of these flukes?
the chick lives inside the dude. They are permanently getting it on. whoooooo
How do blood flukes enter the definitive host?
They penetrate through the skin
What does Heterobilharzia americana cause?
Swimmers itch
Nanophyetus salmincola:

This parasite can have 1 or 2 intermediate hosts. If there are two, what is the second?
mostly salmonid fish
Neorickettsia helminthoeca is an organism related to Ehrlichia. What disease does it cause?
What are the signs?
Salmon poisoning disease
Most obvious sign is enlarged lymph nodes
What are the treatments for Salmon poisoning disease?
oxytetracycline and praziquantel
Paragonimus kellicotti:

What is the commom name of this fluke?
What is the second intermediate host?
How do the eggs get distributed?
Lung fluke
Crayfish
eggs are coughed up, swallowed and transmitted in feces
What is distinct about the radiagraphs of a dog with lung flukes?
they have a chain-link appearance
What is the treatment for lunkg fluke infestation?
praziquanatel am fenbendazole
Platynosomum concinnum has 2 intermediate hosts, what is the second?
What are the definitive hosts?
What is a major pathological manifestation of this fluke?
Lizard or toad
cats and opossums
cirrhosis of the liver
What is the second intermesiate host for Alaria?
Tadpole
what form of Alaria's lifecycle is ingested by the definitive host?
mesocercariae
Cestodes:

What is the free-swimming stage of the lifecycle called?
coracidium
Spirometra:

What is the first intermediate host?
what form develops in the first intermediate host?
What form develops in the second intermediate host?
copepod
procercoid
plerocercoid
What is the treatment for Spirometra?
Praziquantel
What genus of tapeworms causes the ever popular "scooting" in dogs?

How many intermediates does it have?

What is the form that develops in tissues of herbivores?
Taenia
one
cysticerci
Taenia multiceps is a tapeworm with an intereting effect on its intermediate host. What is the host and what is the effect?
The hosts are sheep or goats.
The effect is progressive neurologic disease leading to circling, blindness, head-pressing, and death.