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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sole supplier of blood to the heart
Coronary Arteries
Blood flow through the heart
systemic bloodflow, R atrium, tricuspid valve, r ventricle, pulmonic valve, pulmonary arteries, lungs, GAS EXCHANGE TAKES PLACE, pulmonary veins, L atrium, Mitral valve (bicuspid), L ventricle, aortic vavle, aorta, Body recieves oxygenated blood
systole
contraction
diastole
relaxation
Stroke volume
amount of blood ejected from the heart with each ventricular contraction
preload
volume of blood returning to the heart
afterload
resistance agagints the heart muscle must pump
Starlings Law
myocardial fibers contract more forcefully when they are stretched.
Cardiac Output
the amount of blood pumped by the ventricles per MIN.

stroke volume X Heart rate
Vagus Nerve
parasympathetic control of the heart
Acetylcholine
chemical mediator of the parasympathetic nervous system - decreases HR
Postganglionic fibers
relsease the chemical norepinepherine (increases HR, and increases force of muscle contraction)
adrenal medulla
secretes the hormones epi and norepi
Calcium
ion required for for cardiac muscle contraction to occur
Cardiac Action Potential phases
0-4
0- rapid depolarization phase.fast sodium channels open momentarily.
1- early rapid repolarization phase.- potassium continues to be lost, returns the cell membrane to its resting permeablilty state
2- plateau phase- calcium enters the myocardial cells
3- terminal phase of rapid repolarization. - inside of cell becoming negative, repolarization is completed by end of this phase
4- period between action patential. - excess sodium is transported out of cell and potassium transported back in
Pacemaker cells
generate electrical impulses spontaneosly (automaticity)
Inerent rate of SA node
60-100 BPM
Inherent rate of AV node
40-60 BPM
inherent rate of Ventricles
20-40 BPM
Conduction of the heart
SA node- internodal bundles- AV node - Bundle of HIS- L and R bundle Branches- Purkinje fibers
Most common mechanism in producing ectopic beats
Reentry
Lead 1
L arm= positive
R arm = negative
Lead 2
Left leg = postive
R arm= negative
Lead 3
L leg = postivie
L arm = negative
P wave
atrial depolarization
QRS complex
depolarization of ventricals
T wave
repolarization of ventricles
Sinus Bradycardia
LESS THAN 60 BPM
Sinus Tacy
GREATER THAN 100 BPM
Sinus Dysrythmia
Irregular rhythm
Sinus Arrest
short periods of cardiac stand still
Wandering Pacemaker
P waves change in morphology from beat to beat, Irregular rhythm
Premature Atrial Complex
PAC
P wave comes early, can be hidden in preceding T wave
SVT
Rate 150-250
Atrial Flutter
Sawtooth of picket fence pattern
Atrial Fib
irregularly irregular
Premature Junctional Contraction
P waves- may be associated with PJC, can be before durring or after QRS,
Junctional Escape rhythms
Rate 40-60 BPM,
Accelerated junctional rhythm
60-99 BPM
Ventricular Escape rhythm
20-40 BPM
Premature ventricular complex
wide and bizarre QRS complex
1st degree AV block
PRI longer than .2 sec)
2nd degree AV block type 1
PRI progressivly lengthens
3rd degree AV block
p waves- present but no relation to QRS
PRI: no relation exists between atrial and vent activity