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23 Cards in this Set

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Palaeolithic
Old Stone Age
Hunters and Gatherers
Not Sedentary
No social rank
No written records
Lack of wealth/storage
Neolithic
Middle Stone Age
Buried and prepared bodies
(afterlife?)
Language, communication, and knowledge.
Neolithic Revolution
c. 11,000 BC
Domestication of animals and plants
Sedentary rise of villages and towns
Specialization
Trade established
Homo sapians neanderthalensis
Were the first to bury their dead carefully and place funerary offerings in the graves-- the earliest indication of the existence of religious beliefs.
Stonehenge
ca. 3,000-1,800 BCE
Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England.
Monolytihic Architecture
A solar calendar
Heel stone- sun rises on summer soltice.
Venus of Willdendorf
Austria, c 28,000-23,000 BCE
Limestone. Female figurines of fertility?. Emphasized sexual characteristics, enlarging breats and belly.
Hall of the Bulls
Lascaux, France c. 15,000-13,000 BCE, found in dark inner recesses not to be used as decoration.
What it shows us: Believing that gaining control of an animal in a painting would help to defeat it in the hunt.

Twisted Perspective
Walls of Jericho
2,000 BC, increased competition resulted in stone wall around the town. Was the first stone structure.
Ziggurat
Sumerian religious structures made of bricks built to form terraces.
Sumer
"Land between The Rivers"
Southern desert of Mesopotamia
Cuneiform
Wedge of reed writing in flate stone tablets.
Royal Tombs of Ur
2550-2450 BCE demonstration of wealth of newly unified Sumerian elite.
Sargon of Akkad
Transformed independent city states of Sumer and Akkad into a a much larger political unit: a kingdom/empire
Hammurabi
Established Babylon after it was weakend and made it florish. Established the Code of Hammurabi.
Admistrative reforms
Religious imperialism
Epic of Gilgamesh
Recounts exploits of historical king of Uruk Gilgamesh.
Themes: human vulnerbility, imortality, attempt to change desity or control nature.
Hammurabi's Code
Addressed wide range of legal concerns and their consequences. "eye for and eye"
Uruk(Warka)
c. 3,200-3,000 BCE
White Temple and Ziggurat
Uruk period

Description: Perhaps dedicated to the sky god AN, the temple may have been designe to provide the gods with a mountaintop home in a part of the world conspicuous for the absensce of mountains.
The Standard of Ur
(A Sumerian Banquet)
ca. 2,600 BCE.

Description:Panel with shell, lapis lazuli and red limestone. Warside/peaceside, perhaps to celebrat the miliary victory illustrated on the opposite side.
Early Dynastic Period
Queen's headdress
Royal Tombs of Ur
Early Dynastic Period
c.2,600 BCE
Head of Akkadian ruler
(Sargon or Naram Sin?
Nineveh, Akkadian
c. 2,200 BCE

Description:Bronze, distinguishes heavy beard, finer hair of the mustache, and the even thinner hair on the head.
Stele of Naram-Sin
Susa, Iran, Akkadian
c. 2,220 BCE

Description: Victory, King wearing horned crown, stands beneath symbols of gods, on the bodies of his enemies.
Seated Statue of Gudea
Telloh. Neo-Sumerian
c.2,100 BCE
diorite

Description: Detailed drapery and deadgear contrast w/ simple face which suggest the humility of this neo-sumerian ruler.
Stele of Hammurabi
Old Babylonian Empire
ca. 1760

Description: Sun god dictationg the law to the king. Ridges beneath god's feet depicts them on a mountain.