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29 Cards in this Set

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Containment
Oldest packaging function
Product’s physical form viscous, free-flowing liquid, solid etc..
Product’s nature (characteristics) perishable, shape, under pressure etc...
Protect
protect product from elements (water, oxygen, light, bacteria, , etc…)
shock and vibration
protect consumer from the contents (corrosive or dangerous products which involve child resistant packages)
protect against tampering (tamper evident or resistant but never tamper proof)
Inform/Sell
Information required by law
contents
nutritional label
warnings
shipping information
Motivational Information (not req’d by law)
type of material
shape and size
color
typography
symbols or icons
illustrations or photographic images
games
recipes
Know the term “trade dress”
includes shape, color and print
covered under trademark law
examples: Coca Cola, Disney characters, sports teams, university logos etc…
Provide Convenience or Utility of Use
for the consumer
easy opening/resealing
squeezable
microwavable
unit dose
for the retailer
size
orientation for shelf display
point of purchase displays
for the shipper/distributor
hand holds
fork truck cut outs
reuseable totes
Primary Packaging
Package directly in contact with the product.
Example: Cereal bag inside a box
Secondary Packaging
Package holding one or more primary package(s)
Example: Box holding bagged cereal
Tertiary
Shipping or Distribution Package
Example: Corrugated box used to ship a number of cereal boxes.
Quarternary
Unit Load
Example: Stretch wrapped pallet load of corrugated shipping containers.
Levels of Packaging
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Quaternary
Many products do not require all four levels of packaging.
Example: Corrugated container holding a refrigerator can be a primary and tertiary at the same time.
Example: Deodorant sticks have primary package, no secondary but has tertiary and quaternary.
Nicholas Appert
Canning Process
1809
Categories of Materials
Paper and Paperboard (Wood Products)
Metals (Steel and Aluminum)
Glass
Plastics (Petrochemicals)
Wood
Raw Material - Wood
Applications for Wood in Packaging - barrels - crates - nailed or wirebound boxes - pallets and skids
Wood contains - 50% cellulose - 30% lignin - 20% carbohydrate
Cellulose - structure for paper/paperboard
Lignin -produces browning in paper
What “plastic” comes from wood?
Cellophane
Paper
Paper (matted sheet of plant fibers)
0.012” thick or less
Paperboard greater than 0.012” thick thickness is referred to as “points” 0.001” = 1 point (example: 0.014” = 14 point paperboard)
Making Pulp
Mechanical
Least expensive for 2 Reasons
a. Doesn’t use chemicals b. Uses all of the wood Low brightness and strength
(short fibers)
Usually combined with other pulps
Making Pulp
Chemical
a. Alkali sulfate (Kraft) E Most widely used
b. Acid sulfite
Higher quality than Mechanical pulp
(longer fibers)
Making Pulp
Semi-Chemical
Partially digested with chemicals
Grind in disc refiner
Not used much except for: Corrugated media
Paper Making
Start with Pulp - fibers suspended in water; also known as “furnish”
General Procedure for Both Processes
- Screen
- Squeeze
- Dry
Calendering
Paper run through stack of rollers
Increases density and smoothness
Important for strength and print quality
Two Major Types of Paper Making Machines
Fourdrinier - for paper or paperboard
Cylinder - for paperboard only
Paper/Paperboard Specifications
Basis Weight - lbs./sq. ft.
Paper: lbs./3000 sq. ft.
Paperboard: lbs./1000 sq. ft.
Thickness (Caliper)
- Measured and expressed in inches for paper.
- Measured in inches but expressed as points for paperboard.
Advantages to Wood/Paper and Paperboard
Renewable
Recyclable
Inexpensive
Easily printed upon
Disadvantages to Wood/Paper and Paperboard
Porous to moisture and oxygen
Loses strength when wet
Combustible
Packaging Functions
Contain
Protect/Preserve
Inform/Sell
Provide Convenience or Utility of Use
Paperboard
Bending Grade Board (must contain enough high quality fiber to allow scoring and folding) - used for folding cartons
Types of Board - clay coated newsback (white-lined with back and filler plies made from recylcled newsprint)
- solid bleached sulfate (strong paperboard made from 100% bleached sulfate pulp)
Uses - cereal boxes, cake mix boxes, etc.
Paperboard
Three Basic Design Styles
Three Basic Design Styles
- tube (Straight tuck, Reverse tuck, Seal end)
- tray (Beers, Brightwood, Walker)
- hybrid (Milk carton, Ice cream)
Layout - CAD - die board (rotary or flat)
- coordinate with graphics electronically
Solid Fiberboard
Several plies of paperboard laminated together
Uses (Distribution Packaging) - shipping containers - dividers - corner supports
Corrugated Paperboard
Basic construction
- Corrugated medium (flutes) A, B, C, E and F flutes
- Linerboard Comes in different basis weights Specified with burst or edge crush
tests - Single face, single wall, double wall and triple wall
Corrugated Paperboard
Design
- CAD - Specifications of Freight Truck and Railroad Associations - Product Requirements
- Shipping/Storage/Handling Conditions
- Must account for scoring allowances
- Flutes should be oriented parallel to depth dimension for best stacking strength
Corrugated Paperboard
Uses
A, B, C, double and triple wall
- Shipping boxes - Point of Purchase Displays E and F flutes
- retail boxes for small appliances or bulky items - fast food packaging