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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
This approach to knowledge is based on observation
Empirical approach
This is a statement involving indicating what results are expected.
Hypothesis
In this type of research, treatments are given for the research purpose and the changes (if any occur) are observed
Experimental
When is an experiment called a true experiment
When the participants are divided at random (such as drawing a name out of a hat)
In this type of research, the researchers do not give treatments. Rather they observe participants in order to observe them as they naturally exist without experimental treatments
Non experimental studies
What is one of the most common types of nonexperimental studies?
Survey (or poll)
What type of research or approach does everyone use on an everyday basis?
Empirical approach
What question establishes the need for a study to take place?
The question of “why to observe”
In an experiment, does random assignment have to be used for it to still be considered and experiment.
No (Note that if a researcher administers treatments or arranges for their administration, the study is called and experiment regardless of whether the groups of participants are formed at random)
Can an experiment be conducted with only one group of participants?
Yes (think of the experiment with the class of children were all given verbal praise, and then not given verbal praise)
In what type of studies do researchers not give treatments? Rather they observe participants in order to describe them as they naturally exist.
Nonexperimetnal studies
Can consumers of research distinguish between nonexperimental and experimental studies based on the type of instrument (ie. measuring tool) used?
No. instruments such as paper and pencil tests, interview schedules, and personality scales are used in both types of studies
Is the actual act of measurement considered to be a treatment?
No. in fact researchers try to measure in a way that the actual measuring in itself does not affect the research.
What is the purpose of an experiment?
To explore the cause and effect relationship (ie. treatments are given to see how they affect the participants)
When researchers want to investigate cause and affect relationships, what type of studies do they prefer?
Experimental studies
What is another name for a causal-comparative study?
Ex post facto study
What are the essential characteristics of a causal-comparative study (aka ex post facto study)
-researchers observe and describe some current condition
-researchers look to the past to identify the possible cause or causes of the condition
Do researchers give treatments in casual comparative (ex post facto) studies?
No. it is a nonexperimetnal study
In causal-comparative (ex post facto) studies, researchers describe what
Observations
Which type of research has more potential pit falls, experimental studies or the casual comparative (ex post facto) method?
Causal comparative (ex post facto) method has more potential pitfalls
This is a type of research where the researcher looks to the past for the cause or causes of a current condition
Causal –comparative (ex post facto) study
Which type of method is used when researchers are interested in causality, but it is not possible to conduct an experiment
Causal-comparative (ex post facto) method
What is the purpose of a survey or poll?
To describe the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of a population
What is the difference between a survey (poll) and a census?
A survey (poll) studies a sample of the population, which the results can then be generalized to an entire population. A census is a count or study of an entire population
In this type of study, the emphasis is on obtaining thorough knowledge of an individual and is sometimes obtained over a long period of time.
Case study
When researchers repeatedly measure traits of a participant over a long period of time in order to tract developmental trends, they are conducting what kind of research?
Longitudinal trends
If a researcher measured the visual acuity of a sample of infants each week for a year to trace their development, what type of study would this be?
Longitudinal research
When researchers are interested in a degree of relationship among two or more quantitative variables, what type of research is this?
Correlational research
A distinctive feature of this type of research is that researchers gather data in such a way that the data are easy to quantify, allowing for statistical analysis.
Quantitative research
The causal-comparative (ex post facto) method is quantitative or qualitative research
Quantitative research
A survey (poll), census, and case studies are all examples of quantitative or qualitative research
Quantitative research
Longitudinal research is an example of quantitative or qualitative research
Quantitative research
Correlational research is an example of quantitative or qualitative research
Quantitative research
To measure attitudes towards Asian Americans, a researcher might use a questionnaire and count how many times responders answered “yes” to statements about Asian Americans, then calculate the percentage who answered yes to each statement. This would be an example of quantitative or qualitative research
Quantitative research
In this type of research, researchers gather data (such as responses to open ended interview questions on Asian Americans) that must be analyzed through the use of informed judgment to identify major and minor themes expressed by participants. Does this describe an example of quantitative or qualitative research?
Qualitative research
Most of this type of research is collected through semi-structured interviews to which there is a core list of questions from which the interviewers may deviate as needed to obtain in depth information. Does this describe an example of quantitative or qualitative research?
Qualitative research
In this type of research, information is examined in order to understand the past
Historical research
If a historical researcher was going to use the following things for his/her research, tell which would be quantitative and which would be qualitative.
-Examining historical documents (qualitative)
-Counting certain types of statements made in historical documents (quantitative)
-Using insight and judgment to identify themes (qualitative)
This is a trait or characteristic with two or more categories
Variable
If a sample of people were asked to give their gender, and then asked to vote for one of three people (Tom, Dick, or Harry), what are the variables and what are the categories?
The first variable is the gender (which has two categories)
The second variable is who they would vote for (out of the three people)
All variables have __________.
Mutually exclusive categories, meaning they will belong to one and only one category
Researchers define variables in such a way that the categories are _______
Exhaustive
Variables in nonexperimental studies are sometimes classifies as what two things
Independent and dependent
With the study of smoking and lung cancer, what would be the dependant variable and what is the independent variable
Independent variable is smoking (the cause) and the dependent variable is the lung cancer (the effect or outcome)
It is common to call the independent variable the _________ and the outcome (dependent) variable the _________.
-Predictor
-Criterion (criterion means standard)
All experiments have how many independent and dependent variables
At least one independent and one dependent variable
In experimental studies, researchers physically manipulate the ________ variable
Independent
In nonexperimetnal studies, do researchers physically manipulate the independent variable
No, instead they observe the independent variable as they occur naturally
This is a prediction of the outcome of a study
Research hypothesis
A simple research hypothesis predicts what?
A relationship between two variables
In this type of hypothesis, researchers predict which group will be higher or have more of some attribute
Directional hypothesis
In this type of hypothesis, the researcher predicts there will be a difference, but does not predict the direction of the difference
Nondirectional hypothesis
What two things may be substituted for a nondirectional hypothesis?
Research purpose and a research question
When researchers are willing and able to predict the outcome of a study, should they state a directional hypothesis, a research purpose, or a research question?
Directional hypothesis
This is a statistical hypothesis which needs to be considered when analyzing results obtained from samples of quantitative research studies.
Null hypothesis
Dictionaries provide what kind of definitions of variables
Conceptual definitions
Redefining a variable in terms of physical steps is called what
Operationalizing a variable (meaning he or she is creating an operational definition)
Is it possible to completely operationalize a variable
No. no attempt at operationalizing a variable will result in a completely operational definition because there are an infinite number of physical characteristics that might be addressed in any definition (ie, the humidity of the room, the level of lighting, whether the subject has to fart or poop)
Since it is not possible to completely operationalize a variable, researchers try to produce definitions that are adequate to permit a _________ in all important respects by another researcher.
Replication
This is an attempt to confirm the results of a study by conducting it again in the same way
A replication
In this type of hypothesis, researchers predict which group will be higher or have more of some attribute
Directional hypothesis
In this type of hypothesis, the researcher predicts there will be a difference, but does not predict the direction of the difference
Nondirectional hypothesis
What two things may be substituted for a nondirectional hypothesis?
Research purpose and a research question
When researchers are willing and able to predict the outcome of a study, should they state a directional hypothesis, a research purpose, or a research question?
Directional hypothesis
This is a statistical hypothesis which needs to be considered when analyzing results obtained from samples of quantitative research studies.
Null hypothesis
Dictionaries provide what kind of definitions of variables
Conceptual definitions
Redefining a variable in terms of physical steps is called what
Operationalizing a variable (meaning he or she is creating an operational definition)
In this type of hypothesis, researchers predict which group will be higher or have more of some attribute
Directional hypothesis
In this type of hypothesis, the researcher predicts there will be a difference, but does not predict the direction of the difference
Nondirectional hypothesis
Is it possible to completely operationalize a variable
No. no attempt at operationalizing a variable will result in a completely operational definition because there are an infinite number of physical characteristics that might be addressed in any definition (ie, the humidity of the room, the level of lighting, whether the subject has to fart or poop)
What two things may be substituted for a nondirectional hypothesis?
Research purpose and a research question
Since it is not possible to completely operationalize a variable, researchers try to produce definitions that are adequate to permit a _________ in all important respects by another researcher.
Replication
This is an attempt to confirm the results of a study by conducting it again in the same way
A replication
When researchers are willing and able to predict the outcome of a study, should they state a directional hypothesis, a research purpose, or a research question?
Directional hypothesis
This is a statistical hypothesis which needs to be considered when analyzing results obtained from samples of quantitative research studies.
Null hypothesis
Dictionaries provide what kind of definitions of variables
Conceptual definitions
Redefining a variable in terms of physical steps is called what
Operationalizing a variable (meaning he or she is creating an operational definition)
Is it possible to completely operationalize a variable
No. no attempt at operationalizing a variable will result in a completely operational definition because there are an infinite number of physical characteristics that might be addressed in any definition (ie, the humidity of the room, the level of lighting, whether the subject has to fart or poop)
Since it is not possible to completely operationalize a variable, researchers try to produce definitions that are adequate to permit a _________ in all important respects by another researcher.
Replication
This is an attempt to confirm the results of a study by conducting it again in the same way
A replication
The results of_________ research are represented as quantities or numbers (ie, statistics)
Quantitative
The results of _________ research are presented as discussions of trends and or themes based on words, not statistics
Qualitative
Qualitative researchers tend to use deductive or inductive approach to planning research?
Inductive approach
Quantitative or qualitative researchers tend to use literature as the basis for planning research.
Quantitative
Quantitative or qualitative researchers tend to use large groups or samples of people and spend less time with them.
Quantitative researchers
Quantitative or qualitative researchers tend to use small groups or samples of people and spend more time with them.
Qualitative researchers
Quantitative or qualitative researchers prefer to use random samples
Quantitative researchers
Quantitative or qualitative researchers prefer to select a purposive sample of individuals
Qualitative researchers
_______ researchers prefer to use informed judgment in selecting participants, while ________ researchers prefer to leave the selection up to chance (ie, random selection)
Qualitative / Quantitative
While working with participants, _____ researchers would be more open to the possibility of making adjustments in the instrumentation, such as rewording or adding questions based on earlier responses by participants
Qualitative
________ researches rarely make adjustments to during the course of a research project
Quantitative
When little is known about a topic, which type of research should be used? Quantitative or qualitative.
Qualitative
When the participants belong to a culture that is closed or secretive, which type of research should be used? Quantitative or qualitative.
Qualitative
When potential participants are not available for extensive interactions or observation, which type of research should be used? Quantitative or qualitative.
Quantitative, (think of CEO’s of large companies, they don’t have time for interviews but may fill out questionnaire)
When time and funds are very limited, which type of research should be used? Quantitative or qualitative.
Quantitative
When audiences require hard number, which type of research should be used? Quantitative or qualitative.
Quantitative
Program evaluation is almost always ______ research
Applied
This is a type of research in which researchers wish to apply the findings directly to such practical decisions as whether to continue funding a program and whether to modify it.
Applied research
This is a nonexperimetnal research in which researchers attempt to determine the practical needs of those who will be served by the program.
Needs assessment
When program evaluators collect information during the course of a program that assists in the process of modifying the program while it is being implemented is called ________
Formative evaluation
What are the two prongs of formative evaluation
-Info is collected on the process of implementing a program
-Collecting information on the progress toward the ultimate goal
When evaluators collect information about participant’s attainment of the ultimate goals at the end of the program, the activity is called _______
Summative evaluation
The primary ethical value regarding the use of humans as participants is that they ……..
Must be protected from both physical and psychological harm
What are some of the ethical values regarding humans as participants in research.
-Must be protected from both physical and psychological harm
-They have a right to privacy
-They have a right to keep their information confidential
-They have the right to know the purpose of the research
-They have the right to informed consent
-They have the right to a debriefing after the research is over
To obtain informed consent, researchers inform the participants of what things
-General purpose of the research
-What will be done to them during the research
-The potential benefits
-Their potential for harm
-The fact that they may withdraw at any time without penalty
What is one of the most widely studied theories in learning
Reinforcement theory
What type of theory do qualitative researchers tend to practice?
Grounded theory
A grounded theory is a theory that is……
Grounded on observation
Do researchers use induction or deduction to derive a hypothesis from a theory
Deduction
if you decide to do a research project using human subjects while you are a student at OUHSC, know that you will have to plan for three things:
1)Get IRB approval
2)Get informed consent from the subject
3)Be evaluated by IRB each year of the project for ongoing approval or closure