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66 Cards in this Set

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a process of microbial action on food that is beneficial
fermentation
a process of microbial action on food which changes food into a useless nutritional source
spoilage
a gram (+) coccus which naturally grows on cabbage and breaks down carbs into acetic and lactic acid
Leuconostoc
What is the end result of Leuconostoc action on cabbage?
pH is reduced to below 4 and aromas and diacetyl are produced.
gram (+) rods that grow on cabbage after Leuconstoc; produces more lactic acid and reduces the pH to 2
lactobacillus
How do Leuconostoc and lactobacillus work with salt to preserve cabbage?
The salt and low pH serve to prevent the growth of other bacteria and molds while preserving the vit C in the cabbage
Results from yeast fermentation of fruit juices to ETOH followed by the action of acetobacter aceti to convert the ECTOH into acetic acid
Vinegar
Vinegar's principle acid
acetic acid
Name the three bacteria vital in pickling cucumbers
1. Enterobacter aerogens
2. leuconostoc
3. lactobacillus
Bacterium that produces carbon dioxide producing an anaerobic environment int the pickling process
Enterobacter aerogens
Role of leuconostoc and lactobacillus in pickling process
making acid that softens the cucumbers and produces the sour flavor
Bacteria used to make sour cream from cream
Streptococcus cremoris
Bacteria used to make buttermilk from skim milk
Leuconostoc
Two bacteria that thicken, flavor, and make yogurt tart
Lactobacillus
Streptococcus thermophilus
Bacteria found in yogurt that lowers vaginal pH and produces hydrogen peroxide, resulting in inhibition of many pathogens
Lactobacillus
bacteria that causes mild to sour and curdle during the production of cheese
some streptococci
Bacteria that produces lactic acid during Swiss cheese fermentation
Lactobacillus
Bacteria that produces carbon dioxide, which makes bubbles that cause the holes in Swiss cheese
Propionibacterium
Two molds used to make Roquefort and Camembert cheese
Penicillium roqueforti
Penicillium camemberti
The use of microbial metabolism to produce useful, organic chemicals from relatively inexpensive, readily available starting material
Industrial microbiology
Four properties of microbes that make them ideally suited for industrial processes
1. highly diverse metabolism
2. rapid growth
3. grow in simple, inexpensive media
4. can be genetically manipulated
One of the most notable commercially used enzymes
protease
List some commercial uses of protease
1. laundry detergent (remove stains)
2. meat tenderizers
3. tanners (remove unwanted tissue)
Bacterial enzyme that can be injected into heart attack pt to break down blood clots to prevent further heart damage
streptokinase
enzyme used in the production of linen to release fibers in flax for spinning
pectinase
Mold that produces citric acid
Aspergillus niger
yeast that ferments fruit juice in wine making; produces carbon dioxide from fruit sugar
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
yeast that ferments ale (dark beer)
S. cerevisiae
yeast that ferments lager (light beer)
S. carlsbergensis
What is done to the microbes that produce alcoholic drinks in the last phase of production?
They are killed by pasteurization or removed by filtration
Bacterium that produces a protein which is toxic to caterpillars when they ingest it; cloned into plants as natural pesticide
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bacteria species that causes freezing in citrus fruit; has been modified to make snow at ski resorts, delete the ice-forming gene, and make citrus fruit better tolerate cold
Bacillus
The process of cloning or deleting toxin genes from living things
genetic engineering
the linking together of various genes or gene fragments into a single DNA molecule
recombinant DNA
4 Characteristics of viruses that make them good candidates for genetic enginering
1. cause disease in pests
2. carry their genes into the pest
3. very specific to organisms infected
4. can be modified to be superkillers of pests
Bacterium most used in mass production of recombinant proteins
E. coli
Term for water fit to drink
potable
Water that contains infections microbes or toxic substances
contaminated
Water that contains obvious contaminates indicated bay appearance, smell, etc
polluted
Having waters rich in mineral and organic nutrients that promote a proliferation of plant life, especially algae, which reduces the dissolved oxygen content and often causes the extinction of other organisms.
eutrophy
the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms in a body of water to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period.
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Name the three zones of ocean habitats
1. littoral zone
2. benthic zone
3. abyssal zone
The part of the ocean near the shoreline; contains most of the nutrients and microorganisms.
littoral zone
general ocean floor
benthic zone
deep trenches
abyssal zone
Infectious agents transmitted in fresh water
V. cholera, Leggionella, E. coli, Shigella, G. lamblia, Cryptosporidium, E. histolytical, adenoivirus, rotavirus, and poliovirus
Infectious agents of marine water
Pfiesteria piscicida and hep A
Name four steps of water purification
1. SEDIMENTATION is used to remove granular materials such as gravel and chemical aggregates.

2. ALUM is added to form a gel like mass that collects many microbes as it settles to the bottom

3. The aqueous layer is filtered through SAND

4.The water is CHLORINATED sufficiently to kill microbes with some residual killing power for orgs that enter the H2o later
degrades and removes particulate mattter and kills harmful microorganisms from waste water and household sewage
Sewage tx
Term for solid material in sewage tx
sludge
What is the use of air in sewage tx
It is blown through liquid phase to assist growth of aerobic bacteria that rapidly break down residual organics
the use of living organisms as a remedy
bioremediation
Fungi that help plants obtain minerals, while plants provide growing niche for the fungi in their roots
mycorrhizae
mutualistic groups of algae and fungi; fungi protects algae make nitrogen usable to fungi
lichens
Group of bacteria needed for cellulose to degrade
Cytophaga
a group of strictly anaerobic Archaea that grow in swamps and manure
methanogens
Second most abundant element in the biomass
Nitrogen
A process in the nitrogen cycle in which proteins are degraded to amino acids and nucleic acids to nuceotides both are eventually degraded to ammonia
ammonification
Bacteria that oxidizes the ammonia, turning it into nitrate
Nitrosomonas
Bacteria that oxidized nitrate into nitrate
Nitrobacter
The term for the synthesis of nitrate preformed by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter
nitrification
The process by which some anaerobic bacteria such as Pseudomonas utilizes nitrate for respiration, turning it back into nitrogen
denitrification
a free living bacteria that fixes nitrogen in areas such a grasslands; grow in root nodules of leguminous plants
Azoobacter
bacteria that converts nitrogen gas into ammonia then amino acids and nucleotides, resulting in nitrogen fixation; produces 10x amt of nitrogen produced by Azobacter
Rhizobium
An essential element in the animo acids methionine and cysteine
Sulfer
Bacteria that oxidizes hydrogen sulfide into sulfate in the Sulfer cycle
Thiobacillus