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90 Cards in this Set

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Bacteria mutated where it can no longer make a specific vitamin
auxotroph (Ch. 12)
photosynthetic bacteria
photoautotroph
bacteria that derive energy from CO2 and hydrogen to produce methane gas
methanogen
liquid media
broths
broth solidified by condition of agar
solid media
media consisting of completely known chemicals
synthetic aka defined media
brain-heart infusion broths in which exact chemical composition is unknown
nonsynthetic aka complex media
addition of nutrients to brain-heart infusion
enriched medium
Agar used for the isolation of human pathogens from body sites
blood agar
media that allows for growth of specific bacteria only
selective media
media that allows several bacteria to grow, but causes them to appear differently
differential media
process of spreading out, driven by Brownian motion
difussion
pressure resulting from water trying to reduce the chemical gradient
hydrostatic aka osmotic pressure
bacteria that grows in presence of air
aerobes
bacteria that require O2 to grow
obligate aerobes
bacteria that grows in the absence of O2
anaerobes
bacteria that grow with or without O2
facultative anaerobes
bacteria that grow in acidic conditions
acidophiles
bacteria that grow in high pH (alkaline) environments
alkalophile
bacteria that can't grow without high concentrations of salt
obligate halophiles
bacteria that grow at boiling temps and above
extreme thermophiles
bacteria that can't grow in high temps but can't be killed by high temps
thermoduric
Symbiotic relationship where total growth success of both organisms is greater that if organisms had grown independently
synergism
Symbiotic relationship when both populations need each other for quality of living
mutualistic
bacteria that require reduced levels of O2
microaerophiles
Mutually harmful symbiotic relationship
antagonism
Each division or doubling of a cell
generation (ch. 13)
When bacteria double every consistent period of time
exponential growth
phase where cells are adapting to rich supply of nutrients in prep for growth
lag phase
How long is the lag phase?
30-60 mins
Phase in which cells start to multiply by doubling until a nutrient becomes limited; second phase
log phase
How long is the log phase?
a few hrs
phase where cells are unable to produce new cells or reproduce as the same rate as cells are dying
stationary aka decline aka death phase
cells that produce enzymes that cause self lysis resulting in spreading and growth
autolytic
resulting colony count x dilution factor = # of bacteria in original sample
total cell count
several piles of cells that arise from a single diluted cell called a colony forming unit (CFU0
colonies
All chemical processes that occur in a cell
metabolism
the breakdown of complex materials into building blocks or energy used for synthesis
catabolism
the use of energy to produce more cellular material
anabolism
presence of nutrients signals cells not to produce more
feedback inhibition
The process by which enzymes uses glucose + fructose and combines them to form sucrose
reaction
suffix used on proteins to indicate enzymic activity
-ase
process by which glucose is transported inside of cell and oxidized
glycolysis
During glycolysis, the 6 carbon sugar is converted into two 3 cabron acid called
puruvic acid
Consists of a series of carriers in a membrane; electron derived energy is used to pump protons out of cell; leads to ATP synthesis
electron transport chain
The transfer of electrons to O2 coupled with the synthesis of ATP; O2 is required.
oxidativive phosphorylation
the passage of electrons to 02 to create H2o
respiration
the use of nitrate or sulfate instead of )2 as final electron receptor; yields less energy than aerobic resp
anaerobic respiration
originally referred to process of incomplete catabolsim of sugar to produce ETOH in wines; anaerobic growth environment
fermentation
What happens to pyruvate during fermentation?
It is converted into ETOH instead of going through the Krebs cycle
Why do eukaryotes lack fermentation pathways?
They require O2 to survive and fermentation is an anaerobic process.
Process by which CO2 is used to produce c-containing organic molecules including sugar and O2; essentially the reverse of glycolysis
photosynthesis
use of salt found in rocks as energy source
chemosynthesis
protein catalysts that cells use to convert some molecules into others
enzyme
amount of heat necessary to cause chemical reaction
activation energy
Bacteria (and other organisms) that can use carbon dioxide from
the air as a source of carbon.
autotrophs
The process by which molecules in a solution are always bouncing
around and off of one another.
Brownian motion
Bacteria that do not require either sunlight or organic nutrients, but
rather use minerals and gases from the air, and derive their energy
from chemicals found in rocks.
chemoautotrophs
A form of symbiosis where one organism helps another, but the first organism is unaffected either for good or bad by the second
commensalism
Organisms that require vitamins or similar nutrients.
fastidious organisms
Bacteria specially adapted to growth in high-salt conditions.
halophiles
Bacteria (and other organisms) that require their carbon source to
already be in an organic form, such as a sugar or amino acid.
heterotrophs
Bacteria that grow best at warm temperatures.
mesophiles
A symbiotic relationship that is beneficial to one organism and harmful to the other
parasitism
Bacteria that grow best at cold temperatures.
psychrophiles
A bacterium that cannot grow at high temperatures but will not be killed by exposure to such temperatures over a short period of
time.
thermoduric bacterium
Bacteria that grow best at hot temperatures.
thermophiles
The six most abundant elements in microbes are:
carbon
oxygen
nitrogen
phosphorus
hydrogen
sulfur.
The six most abundant types of molecules in a living bacterium are:
water
proteins
RNA
carbohydrates
lipids
DNA.
Bacteria that can use carbon dioxide from the air as their carbon source
Autotrophs:
Bacteria that require their carbon source in an organic form (e.g., a sugar or an amino acid)
Heterotrophs:
Bacteria that do not produce their own vitamins, usually because they can acquire them from the host
Fastidious organisms:
Mutant bacteria that are incapable of synthesizing an organic molecule, such as a vitamin
Auxotrophs:
How is culture media produced?
Agar is added to the culture broth, the entire mix is boiled to melt the agar, and the mix is poured into petri dishes where it solidifies as it cools to room temperature.
How does diffusion help in a cell nutritionally?
Because of Brownian motion, nutrient molecules are constantly moving, so they make contact with the bacterium, pass through outer layers, and diffuse to the bacteria’s cytoplasmic membrane where the cell can transport them inside
The strength of the________________________ prevents a bacterial cell from rupturing due to internal osmotic or hydrostatic pressure.
peptidoglycan layer
Small samples of a culture.
aliquots
The use of the energy and building blocks left by catabolism to
produce new cellular materials, such as macromolecules.
anabolism
The process in which cells divide and form two progeny cells that
are equal to the original cell
binary fission
The unfolding of a protein or nucleic acid.
denature
The process wherein pyruvate is further disassembled, using oxygen
to degrade the carbon completely to carbon dioxide, water, ATP, and
energy-containing electrons that are passed on to the electron
transport chain.
Krebs cycle
if the doubling time is thirty minutes, it will take__________for ten bacteria to grow into more than one hundred bacteria.
two hours
The number of viable cells in a culture can be determined by:
performing dilutions at each time point, spreading aliquots on petri dishes, and counting the number of colonies that grow.
A turbidimetric assay yields?
A turbidimetric assay determines how many bacterial cells, living or dead, are present by use of a spectrophotometer. The number differs from CFU numbers, because CFU numbers only reflect viable cells.
The three major pathways of catabolism in organisms are
glycolysis
the Krebs cycle
electron transport
The starting compound of glycolysis is
glucose.
How many ATP's are produced in the following processes?

a. Glycolysis
b. TCA cycle/electron transport
a. Glycolysis produces two ATPs.
b. TCA cycle/electron transport produces thirty ATPs.
The final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is
oxygen.
Two possible final electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration are :
nitrate and sulfate.
three types of macromolecules that require building blocks, or precursor molecules are:
DNA, RNA, and amino acids