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169 Cards in this Set

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-Layer of special connective tissue around bone
- Has osteogenic potency– can form bone
 Not present where there is articular cartilage
Periosteum
Bones that are longer than they are wide, have a curve and a shaft, found in the upper and lower extremities.
Long bones
The shaft of the bone.
Diaphysis
i. Wrist, ankle (carpals, tarsals) Primarily made of spongy bones (diploe) except pisaform and calcaneus

Born with them

about as long as they are wide
short bones
Skull bones, ribs, sternum, illeum, scapula are this type of bone.
Flat bones
bones of the pelvis, ear, skull, sphenoid, vertebrae, facial bones, ethmoid , calcaneus are this type of bone
Irregular Bones
These bones are not there at birth, grow in tendons due to use - grow like seeds - ie. Patella of knee, pisaform in wrist, base of thumb, two bones on the ball of the foot at base of great toe
Sesamoid
little bones in between skull bones on sutures
Sutural bones
Two types of bone tissue
spongy/cancellous
compact/cortical
Properites of bone strength
Hardness
Flexibility
Tensile strength
Properties of Bone Matrix
25% water
25% collagen fibers (
flexibility and tensil strength)
50% crystallized mineral salts
Hydroxyapatite (hardness)
Calcium carbonate
Calcium phosphate
Magnesium hydroxide, fluoride, and sulfate
Calcification
Mineral salts make collagen fiber matrix harden and crystallize
Initialized by osteoblasts
First cells that could become bone
Osteoprogenitor Cells/Osteogenic
Stem cells that could be come several different types of cells but become bone
Osteoprogenitor Cells/Osteogenic
Cell that create osteoblasts
Osteoprogenitor Cells/Osteogenic
Where are osteogenic cells found?
Periosteum, endosteum, vascular canals
Where do osteogenic cells come from
Mesenchyme cells
Osteoprogenitor cells are Mitotically active.
T/F
T
Osteogenic cells differnentiate into ________
Osteoblasts
Bone building cells
osteoblasts
Two basic jobs of osteoblasts
Synthesize and secrete collagen and other organic materials

Initiate calcification
Osteoblasts can undergo mitosis.
T/F
F
Osteoblasts become osteoclasts
T/F
F - They become osteocytes when they get trapped in their own matrix.
What are mature bone cells called?
Osteocytes
What is the primary cell in bone tissue?
Osteocytes
What is the main function of osteocytes?
Maintain daily metabolism
Osteoclasts are very small cells.
T/F
F
Osteoclasts are derived from Osteogenic cells. T/F
F
Osteoclasts are derived from fusion of monocytes/white blood cells.
Osteoclasts are concentrated in the medullary cavity. T/F
F
Osteocytes are concentrated in the endosteum.
Reabsorbtion is the process initiated by osteoblasts to repair and maintain cells.
F
RESORBTION is the process of breaking down old cells to promote development and growth of new cells and maintenance and repair of cells and is initiated by OSTEOCLASTS
Osteoclasts release powerful lysosomal enzymes and acid to promote resorbtion into the bone matrix. T/F
T
Osteoclases multinucleate. T/F
T
This type of bone forms the bulk of the shaft and the outside of all bone.
Compact (Also called cortical)
This bone provides protection and support.
Compact (Also called cortical)
Compact/cortical bone is found in areas of high stress and will be thicker in areas where there is more stress. T/F
T
Spongy bone provides protection and support. T/F
F - Compact bone provides protection and support.
This type of bone uses the osteon (Haversion) system.
Compact/Cortical bone
Bring vessels, nerves and lymphatics from periosteal supply
Run transversely
Perforating (Volkman's) canals
Bring vessels to individual osteons
Run longitudinally
Central (Haversion) Canals
rings of calcified matrix around a central canal
Concentric Lamellae
fills in gaps between osteons
Interstitial Lamellae
on surface of bone - inner or outer
Circumferential Lamellae
Small spaces between lamellae
“little lakes”
Osteocytes ‘hang out’ here
Lacunae
Connections between lamellae
“little canals”
Filled with ECF and osteocyte projections
Provide communication between osteocytes via gap junctions
Canliculli
Spongy bone also uses the osteon system. T/F
F
Uses trabeculae instead
Most short, flat and irregular bones are made of compact bone. T/F
F
Most are made from Spongy/Cancellous bone.
Compact bone provides space and protection for the production of red and yellow bone marrow. T/F
F
Spongy/Cancellous bone provides space and protection for red and yellow bone marrow.
Ribs, sternum, vertebral bodies, epiphyses of long bones, coxal bones are the only site of _________ in the human body
hematopoiesis
Hematopoiesis takes place in the medullary cavity of long bone. T/F
F
Hematopoiesis takes place in the epiphyses of long bones.
Hematopoisis takes place in all bones of the human body. T/F
F
Ribs, sternum, vertebral bodies, epiphyses of long bones, coxal bones are the only site of Hematopoiesis in the human body
This type of bone is found in areas that don't undergo much direct stress
Spongy/Cancellous bone
This type of bone moves easily and is lighter weight while still offering protection to underlying structures.
Spongy/Cancellous bone
This system has interstitial lamellae, lacunae and canaliculi in an irregular framework.
Trabecular system
In the __________ osteoblasts and osteoclasts are found on the surface
Trabecular system
These veins and arteries go in through the diaphysis and through the medullary cavity of the bone.
Nutrient Venis and Arteries
Bones are just hard bony structures that don't require a blood supply. T/F
F
Bone has an abundant blood supply
Areas of red marrow get most
Lymph vessels and nerves follow veins and arteries into the bone. T/F
T
This part of the bone is rich in sensory nerves and feels tearing, tension and pain
The Periosteum
The four types of arteries and veins that bring blood supply to the bone
Epiphyseal
Metaphyseal
Nutrient
Periosteal
Osteogenesis - ossification of cartilage and membranes begins at ______ weeks gestation
6-7
The embryonic skeleton contains two types of tissue
Fibrous connective tissue membranes
Pieces of hyaline cartilage
There are two types of bone formation in embryos
Intramembranous Ossification and Osteogenesis
Four steps of intramembranous ossification
1. Development of ossification center
2. Calcification
3. Formation of trabeculae
4. Development of periosteum
Mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteogenic and osteoblasts during this stage of intramembraneous ossification
Step 1 Development of the ossification center.
The bony matrix secreted in the first step of intramembraneous ossification comes from the medullary cavity. T/F
F
It is secreted by osteoblasts.
After this step in intramembraneous ossification, the matrix has hardened and osteoblast have become osteocytes.
What is Calcification, step 2 of intramembraneous ossification?
During this step of intramembraneous ossification canaliculi and lacunae are formed.
Step 2 - Calcification
Trabeculae fuse together to form this type of bone in intramembraneous ossification.
Cancellous or spongy. This happens in step 3.
Blood vessels grow into spaces and red bone marrow are formed during this step of intramembraneous ossification.
Step 3 - Formation of Trabeculae
During step four of intramembraneous ossification, this structure is formed.
Developement of the periosteum
The periosteum is formed from osteoblasts in the medullary cavity. T/F
F
Mesenchyme at periphery condenses into periosteum
During the fourth step of intramembraneous ossification, thin layers of cortical bone develop between spongy bone and the periosteum. T/F
T
The process of __________ takes the bone to its adult shape and size.
Remodeling
This type of bone formation has 5 steps
endochondral ossification
Five Steps of endochondral ossification
Development of the cartilage model
Growth of the cartilage model
Development of the primary ossification center
Development of secondary ossification centers
Formation of articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate
During Development of the cartilage model, the first step of endochondral ossification, mesenchymal cells crowd together in the shape of the future bone and create __________
chondroblasts
These cells secrete cartilage matrix to produce hyaline cartilage model during the first step of endochondral ossificiation.
chondroblasts
The hyaline cartilage model produced by the chondroblasts is covered in ____________
perichondrium
These cells undergo continual mitosis to grow the hyaline cartilage model into bones
chondroctyes
Interstitial growth by addition of cells causes bones to grow in ____________
Length
Deposition of matrix causes appositional growth or growth in ____________
width
Chondrocytes in the mid-region burst and this causes a rise in pH which triggers ___________
calcification
Step one for $500
When these cells die, they become the lacunae.
What are chondrocytes in the hyaline cartilage model during endrochondral ossficcation?
Development of the primary ossification center goes externally to internally in endochondral ossification. T/F
T
During the development of the primary ossificiation center a _________ ________ penetrates the perichondrium and cartilage model
Nutrient Artery
Arrival of this artery to the cartilage model stimultates the production of ____________ to form the ________ ____________ __________
the produciton of osteoblats t form the primary ossification center
This is a shell of compact bone deep to the perichondrium that is created during the developement of the primary ossification center.
the periosteal bone collar
The perichondrium becomes the ___________ during development of the primary ossification center
periosteum
During Development of the primary ossification center Osteoblasts deposit bone matrix over the calcified cartilage remnants to form
spongy trabeculae
The ossification center grows toward the ____________
epiphysis
Osteoclasts break down some of the newly formed trabeculae to form the ___________ ____________
medullary cavity
During primary ossification the medullary cavity fills with _____ ______ ______
red bone marrow
Step 4 of endochondral ossification
Development of secondary ossification centers
Development of secondary ossification centers usually happen
at birth
This artery enters the epiphyses during Development of secondary ossification centers
the epiphyseal artery
Development of secondary ossification centers is the same as development of the primary ossification centers, except
no medullary cavity is formed
Development of secondary ossification centers proceeds from _____________ of epiphysis to _______ __ _____
from center of epiphysis to outside of bone.
Step 5 of endochondral ossificiation
Formation of articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate
Endochondral Bone Formation for $300
Cartilage covering this part of the bone becomes articular cartilage.
What is the epiphysis?
Hyaline cartilage remains between each
diaphysis and epiphysis
Hyaline cartilage remaining between each diaphysis and epiphysis becomes
the epiphyseal growth plate
Endochonral Ossification for $100
Growth in length of the bone stops when this ossifies.
What is the epiphyseal plate
Endochonral ossification for $200
When growth in the bone ceases this is formed.
What is the growth plate or epiphyseal line?
What are the four zones of bone growth?
Zone of resting cartilage
Zone of proliferating cartilage
Zone of hypertrophic cartilage
Zone of calcified cartilage
Zone of interstitial growth in which This cartilage is nearest the epiphysis and anchors the epiphyseal plate to bone and is made from small scattered chondrocytes
Zone of resting cartilage
Zone of interstitial growth in which Large and Highly mitotic and stacked like coins – replaces dying chondrocytes at diaphiseal end.
Zone of proliferating cartilage
larger chondrocytes arranged in columns, Maturing chondrocytes
– Zone of hypertrophic cartilage
Zone of interstitial growth in which Mostly dead chondrocytes from calcifying matrix dissolved by Osteoclasts Osteoblasts and capillaries invade and lay down bony matrix. Epiphyseal plate firmly “cemented” to bone of diaphysis
– Zone of calcified cartilage
New chondrocytes cover old ones during interstitial growth
T
Cartilage is replaced on the epiphyseal side of the plate during interstitial growth
F – diaphiseal side
For most of process of interstitial growth the epiphyseal plate remains constant in size, but bone lengthens
T
Interstitial Growth for $1000 This bone is the first to begin ossification and the last to stop (~33 yrs old)
What is the clavicle?
Interstitial Growth for $300 The age at which most long bones complete ossification
What is age 14-19
Interstitial Growth for $500 When this process ceases in chondrocytes, bone stops growing and is most completely bone.
What is mitosis?
Interstitial Growth for $200 Presence of this means bone growth has stopped.
What is the epiphyseal line?
Interstitial Growth for $100 Damage to this can cause growth of a bone to stop prematurely.
What is the growth plate?
What is the growth plate?
Four basic steps of appositional growth
• 1. Osteoblasts form ridges around periosteal arteries
• 2. These ridges build and fuse together
• 3. Osteoblasts produce circumferential lamellae to further thicken bone
• 4. The process repeats forming more osteons
During appositional growth, osteoclasts are dissolving bone in the medullary cavity as the bone grows thicker.
T
The widening of the medullary cavity during appositional growth accommodates the bones growing need for ______________
Marrow
Factors affecting bone growth for $200 – This hormone is produced by the bones and the liver and promotes cell division and enhances the production of proteins needed for growth.
What is insulin growth factor (IGF)
Factors affecting bone growth for $300 – This hormone is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and effects the production of IGF
What is Human Growth Hormone (HGH)
Factors affecting bone growth for $300 These increase osteoblast activity, encourage production of secondary skeletal sexual characteristics and shut down the growth plate.
What are the sex steroids – estrogens and androgens? Estrogen especially shuts down growth plates
Factors affecting bone growth for $100 Without these, bones would not grow properly.
What are vitamins and minerals from the diet?
Factors affecting bone growth for $400 This vitamin stimulates activity of osteoblasts.
What is Vitamin A?
Factors affecting bone growth for $500 – These two minerals are needed in large amounts to maintain proper bone growth.
What are calcium and phosphorus?
Factors affecting bone growth for $600 These minerals are necessary in small amounts
What are F, Mg, Fe, and Mn
Factors affecting bone growth for $800 This vitamin is important in collagen synthesis and the differentiation of osteoblasts into osteocytes.
What is Vitamin C?
Factors affecting bone growth for $800 Daily Double! These vitamins are important to bone growth because they promote protein synthesis.
What are Vitmins K & B
Bones maintain homeostasis through this process
What is bone remodeling?
Osteoclast activity and osteoblast activity should be balanced because
Without it bones would be too think or too weak
Four steps of healing fractures
• Step 1 Formation of fracture hematoma
• Step 2 Fibrocartilaginous callus formation
• Step 3 Bony callus formation
Step 4 Bone remodeling
Circulation stops and nearby bone cells die during the formation of a fracture hemotoma
T
This is a clot around the site of a fracture
Fracture hemotoma
These grow and bring osteocytes and phagocytes
Capillaries
An actively growing connective tissue at the site of a callous
Procallus
An actively growing connective tissue at the site of a callous
Procallus
These invade the procallus and produce collagen to “glue” it all together
Fibroblasts
These invade the procallus and produce collagen to “glue” it all together
Fibroblasts
During the second step of healing a fracture the procallus becomes a ___________
fibrocartilaginous callus
During the second step of healing a fracture the procallus becomes a ___________
fibrocartilaginous callus
In the third step healing, osteoblasts produce __________ to join living and dead tissue
Trabeculae
In the third step healing, osteoblasts produce __________ to join living and dead tissue
Trabeculae
Fibrocartilage becomes ________________
Spongy bone = bony callus
Fibrocartilage becomes ________________
Spongy bone = bony callus
Final step of fracture healing is called ______ ____________
Bone remodeling
Final step of fracture healing is called ______ ____________
Bone remodeling
During bone remodeling of fracture healing, this type of bone replaces spongy bone and the callus is smoothed out, often becoming undetetable.
Compact bone
During bone remodeling of fracture healing, this type of bone replaces spongy bone and the callus is smoothed out, often becoming undetetable.
Compact bone
Healing of fractures happens very quickly and is complete and perfect
F- Healing fractures takes weeks to months and may never be “perfect”
Healing of fractures happens very quickly and is complete and perfect
F- Healing fractures takes weeks to months and may never be “perfect”
This is the major reservoir for calcium
Bone
This is the major reservoir for calcium
Bone
___% of total body calcium is found in bone
99
___% of total body calcium is found in bone
99
Functions affected by calcium in the body
– Nerve impulses
– Enzyme activity
– Blood clotting (hemostasis)
– Buffers
– Muscle contraction
______ calcium levels are regulated by resorbtion and deposition of Ca2+ in the bone.
Blood
Deposition and resorbtion of calcium in the bones/blood is regulated by
Hormones
Release of this is stimulated by low levels of Ca2+ in the blood
PTH – Parathyroid hormone
Functions of PTH
– Speeds up activity of osteoclasts
– Increases blood Ca2+ levels
– Decreases loss of Ca2+ through kidneys
– Stimulates formation of Calcitriol (vit. D)
• Increases Ca2+ absorption in GI
• Further increasing blood Ca2+ levels
Comminuted Fracture
Itty-bitty pieces
Spiral Fracture
can happen on any long bone, most common on the humerous.
Greenstick fracture
bones in children - bends on one side and shatters on other
Impacted Fracture -
one end is shoved into the other
Depressed Fracture -
mostly of flat bones
• Pott's Fracture-
patients weight on inside tears ligament but no bone damage on outside end of fibula is broken off.
• Colle's Fracture
wrist, breaks radius and sends shaft of radius forward and broken part goes backward.
Stress Fracture-
Common in feet, tibia, shins. Cause of shin splints
7 bones make up the orbit
Frontal
Ethmoid
Sphenoid
Maxillary
Zygomatic
Lacrimal
Palatine
Ossicles – bones of the ears
Not part of skull – inside it
Mobile!
3 paired bones
Malleus
Incus
Stapes
Housed in temporal bone –petrous portion
Fontanels
Anterior (coronal)
Posterior (lambdoidal)
Anterolateral (sphenoidal)
Posterolateral (mastoidal)