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44 Cards in this Set

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Difference between cranial and post cranial?
Cranial bones are the only bones in which teeth or tooth sockets occur.
Cranial bones are thin, flat or irregular in shape.
Have serrated edges (sutures).
What is a long bone?
- Has tubular shaft
- Articulated at each end
- Paired
- Total of 6.
Name as many long bones as possible.
Arm: Humerus, Radius & Ulna
Leg: Femur, Tibia & Fibula
What is a short bone?
- Resemble long bones (tubular and articulated at both ends).
Examples of short bones?
Hand: 5 Metacarpals, 14 Phalanges
Foot: 5 Metacarpals, 14 Phalanges
2 Clavicles
Only short bone that doesn't articulate at both ends?
Terminal Phalanx (end of finger)
What is a flat bone?
- Large surfaces for muscle attachments
- Can be cranial
- Usually thin
- Irregularly places articular surfaces
Examples of flat bones?
2 Innominates
2 Scapulae
24 Ribs
1 Sternum
What is an irregular bone?
- Shaped for function
- Usually thick and short in length
Examples of irregular bones?
33 Bones of Vertebral column
8 Carpal Bones
7 Tarsal Bones
2 Patellae
Anterior
Toward the front of the body. Opposite of Posterior
Posterior
Toward the back of the body. Opposite of Anterior.
Superior
Towards the head of the body. Opposite of Inferior.
Inferior
Towards the foot of the body/away from the head of the body. Opposite of Superior.
Medial
Towards the midline of the body. Opposite of Lateral.
Lateral
Away from the midline of the body. Opposite of Medial.
Proximal
Nearest to the skeleton (used normally for limb bones). Opposite of Distal.
Distal
Furtherest from the skeleton (used normally for limb bones). Opposite of Proximal.
Articulation
Area where two bones are in contact via cartilage or fibrous tissue at a joint.
Eminence
Bony projection.
Crest
Prominent, usually sharp and thin ridge of bone; often formed between sites of muscle mass.
Condyle
Rounded articular process.
Epiphysis
End or portion of a long bone which is expanded for articulation.
Head
Large, rounded and usually articular end of a bone.
Trochanters
Two large, prominent, blunt, rugose (roughened) processes found on the femur. Larger is called the Greater Trochanter, smaller is called the Lesser Trochanter.
Foramen
Opening through a bone, usually a passage for blood vessels and nerves.
Meatus
Short chanal
Suture
Line where bones of the skull articulate.
Alveolus
Tooth Socket.
List some cranial differences between Humans and Animals.
Human:
- Large bulbous vault, small face.
- Vault relatively smooth
- Inferior Foramen Magnum
- Chin present
- Minimal nasal and midface projection
- U shaped manible.

Animal:
- Small bulbous vault, large face.
- Vault with pronounced muscle markings, saggital crest.
- Posterior Foramen Magnum
- Chin absent
- Orbits at sides, posterior to nasal aperture.
- Significant nasal/midface projection
- V shaped manible.
List some POST-cranial differences between Humans and Animals.
Humans:
- Upper limbs less robust
- Radius and ulna separate bones
- Femur longest bone in the body
- Separate tibia and fibula

Animals:
- Robust upper limbs
- Radius and ulna often fused.
- Femur similar length to other limb bones with double linea aspera (linea aspera plateau)
- Tibia and fibula often fused.
Morphological criteria to sex a skull?
Nuchal crest. - Male morer robust/sharp.
Mastoid process. - Male larger.
Supraorbital margin. - Female sharper.
Supraorbital ridge/glabella. - Male morer robust.
Mental eminence (chin). - Male more robust.
How can you tell the difference between masculine and feminine mandible?
Female more narrow - "V"
Masculine rounder - "U"
What are the five points of reference for sexing a skull?
Nuchal Crest (bump on the back of head)
Mastoid Process (big bump on side of head)
Supraorbital margin (side of eye)
Glabella (forehead)
Mental Eminence (chin)
What are the five scales of sexing..
1 - female
2 - probably female
3 - indeterminate
4 - probably male
5 - male
Number of fusion centres on clavicle and where?
Two. One at each end.
Number of fusion centres on scapula?
Seven.
Number of fusion centres on humerus and where?
Three. One at the proximal end, two at the distal end.
Number of fusion centres on radius and where?
Two. One at each end.
Number of fusion centres on ulna and where?
Two. One at each end.
Number of fusion centres on femur and where?
Four. Three at proximal end (each trochanter and head), one at the distal end.
Number of fusion centres on tibia and where?
Two. One at each end.
Number of fusion centres on fibula and where?
Two. One at each end.
Number of fusion centres on os coxae and where?
Three primary centres.