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40 Cards in this Set

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LIST 12 ELEMENTS OF LONG BONE
PERIOSTEUM, ENDOSTEUM, DIAPHYSIS, PROXIMAL AND DISTAL EPIPHYSIS, MEDULLARY CAVIY, YELLOW BONE MARROW, COMPACT BONE, SPONGY BONE, EPIPHYSEAL LINE, ARTICULAR CARTILAGE, RED BONE MARROW CAVITY
LIST THE 6 STRUCTURES OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
BONY VERTEBRAE, INTERVERTEBRAL DISKS, SUPPORTING LIGAMENTS, SPINAL CORD, VERTEBRAL COLUMN
LIST 5 FUNCTIONS OF SKELETAL SYSTEM
PROVIDES FRAMEWORK FOR SUPPORT, POINT OF ATTACHMENT FOR MUSCLE, PROTECTS INTERNAL ORGANS, SOURCE OF RBCs B/C CONTAINS RED MARROW, STORAGE SITE AND SOURCE OF CALCIUM
4 FACTORS AFFECTING BONE GROWTH
HORMONES, HEREDITY, NUTRITION, EXERCISE
IN ADDITION TO CALCIUM, NAME FOUR OTHER MINERALS STORED IN BONE
PHOSPHOROUS, MAGNESIUM, SODIUM, POTASSIUM
SHOULDER OR PECTORAL GIRDLE CONSISTS OF WHAT 3 JOINTS? DESCRIBE FUNCTION OF EACH
GLENOHUMERAL JOINT: WIDEST RANGE OF MOTION, STERNOCLAVICULAR JOINT: STERNUM/CLAVICLE, ACROMIOCLAVICULAR (A/C) JOINT: ARTICULATION BETWEEN CLAVICLE & ACROMION
LIST MUSCLES SURROUNDING SHOULDER JOINT
INFRASPINATOUS, TERES MINOR, SUBSCAPULARIS, SUPRASPINATOUS...KNOWN COLLECTIVELY AS ROTATOR CUFF
DEFINE PURPOSE OF LIGAMENT
BAND OF FIBROUS TISSUE COMPOSED OF COLLAGEN THAT CONNECT BONE TO BONE
DEFINE TENDON
FIBROUS PORTION OF MUSCLE, SERVING TO ATTACH MUSCLES TO BONES AND OTHER PARTS
DEFINE CARTILAGE
NONVASCULAR FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT'S LOCATED IN JOINTS, LARYNX, TRACHEA, THORAX, NOSE, & EAR
DEFINE PERIOSTEUM
FIBROUS MEMBRANE THAT COVERS BONE EXCEPT AT ARTICULAR SURFACES AND PROVIDES BONE WITH VASCULAR AND NERVOUS SUPPLY
HOW ARE JOINTS CLASSIFIED?
ACCORDING TO DEGREE OF MOVEMENT AND SHAPE OF ARTICULATING SURFACES
DEFINE CORTICAL BONE
TYPE OF BONE TISSUE THAT'S HARD AND DENSE, AND THAT SURROUNDS THE MARROW CAVITY; AKA COMPACT BONE
DEFINE CANCELLOUS BONE
AKA SPONGY BONE; FOUND AT ENDS OF BONE AND LINING MEDULLARY CAVITY; COMPOSED OF TRABECULAE COLUMNS WITH LARGE SPACES IN BETWEEN
NAME BONES THAT COMPRISE KNEE JOINT
LATERAL AND MEDIAL CONDYLES OF FEMUR AND TIBIA AND SUPERIOR END OF FIBULA
DSCRIBE PURPOSES OF ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT
HELP STABILIZE MOVEMENTS OF THE JOIN. PCL PREVENTS FEMUR FROM SLIDING ANTERIORLY ON TIBIA. ACL PREVENTS HYPEREXTENSION OF KNEE, PREVENTS FEMUR FROM SLIDING POSTERIORLY ON TIBIA, AND LIMITS MEDIAL ROTATION OF FEMUR WHEN LEG IS IN FIXED POSITION WITH FOOT PLANTED.
DESCRIBE PURPOSE OF MEDIAL AND LATERAL MENISCI
MINISCI CUSHION KNEE JOINT TO WITHSTAND ACTIVITIES SUCH AS WALKING, RUNNING, AND JUMPING
WHAT IS MOST COMMON TYPE OF MENISCAL TEAR? DESCRIBE DEFECT
THE BUCKET HANDLE FRACTURE: INCOMPLETE LONGITUDINAL TEAR WITH DISPLACEMENT OF INNER PORTION OF THE MENISCUS
WHY IS THE LACHMAN AND DRAWER EXAM PERFORMED?
TO EVALUATE ACL INJURIES...TO DIAGNOSE AND CONFIRM AN ACL TEAR. IT TESTS STABILITY OF KNEE.
LIST 5 STAGES OF OSTEOGENESIS AND WHAT OCCURS IN EACH
STAGE 1-INFLAMMATION: FRACTURE HEMATOMA FORMED; THESE CLOTS ARE FOUNDATION FOR STAGE 2. STAGE 2-CELLULAR PROLIFERATION: MACROPHAGES DEBRIDE AREA AND ALLOW FORMATION OF FIBRIN MESH SEAL THAT APPROXIMATES EDGES OF FRACTURE. STAGE 3-CALLOUS FORMATION: SOFT TISSUE GROWTH CONTINUES & BONE GROWTH FRAGMENTS GROW TOWARD ONE ANOTHER, BRIDGING THE GAP. STAGE 4-OSSIFICATION: MATRIX OF OSTEOBLASTS (OSTEOIDS) CALCIFIES, FIRMLY UNITING THE BONE. STAGE 5-REMODELING: ANY DEBITALIZED TISSUE IS REMOVED AND NEW BONE IS ORGANIZED TO PROVIDE MAXIMUM SUPPORT AND FUNCTION.
MAX TOURNIQUET PRESSURE TIME ON UPPER EXTREMITY? LOWER?
1 1/2 HRS.-UPPER; 2 HRS.-LOWER
HOW ARE INFLATION PRESSURES DETERMINED?
BY THE DOCTOR BASED ON AGE, HEALTH, & WEIGHT OF PATIENT
PURPOSE OF ESMARCH BANDAGE USE WITH TOURNIQUET?
EXSANGUINATION
DESCRIBE NON-UNION. REASONS IT MIGHT OCCUR?
FRACTURED BONE ENDS DON'T UNITE; USUALLY CAUSED BY INFECTION OR MOVEMENT OF FRACTURE SITE
DEFINE OSTEOPOROSIS.
DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY EXCESSIVE LOSS OF CALCIUM FROM BONE WITHOUT REPLACEMENT, CAUSING A LOSS IN BONE DENSITY.
**MAIN COMPLICATION OF OSTEOPOROSIS?
******LOSS IN BONE DENSITY????******FRACTURES???????
CAUSE OF COMPARTMENTAL SYNDROME? HOW IS IT MANIFESTED?
INCREASED RESTING PRESSURE IN A CONTAINED COMPARTMENT, SUCH AS LEG OR FOREARM. RESULT IS DECREASED VENOUS DRAINAGE, LOSS OF ARTERIAL INFLOW, AND DEATH TO MUSCLE CONTAINED IN COMPARTMENT. THIS HAPPENS WHEN THERE HAS BEEN AN EMERGENT INJURY TO THE VASCULAR SYSTEM
ELEVATED ESR IS AN INDICATOR OF WHAT?
INFLAMMATION...CONDITIONS SUCH AS RA AND ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS
LIST 8 BONES OF CRANIUM AND THEIR LOCATION
FRONTAL BONE: ABOVE EYES, PARIETAL BONES: ONE OF EACH SIDE OF SKULL FORMING ROOF AND SIDES OF CRANIUM, OCCIPITAL BONE: FORM BACK AND BASE OF CRANIUM, TEMPORAL BONES: FORM PARTS OF SIDE AND BASE OF CRANIUM ON EACH SIDE & JOIN PARIETAL BONE, SPHENOID BONE: AIDS IN FORMING BASE & SIDES OF CRANIUM & FLOORS & SIDES OF ORBIT, ETHMOID BONE: INFRONT OF SPHENOID
LIST 14 FACIAL BONES.
2 MAXILLAE, 2 PALATINE BONES, 2 ZYGOMATIC BONES, 2 LACRIMAL BONES, 2 NASAL BONES, VOMER, MANDIBLE, 2 INFERIOR NASAL CONCHAE
PURPOSE OF TRACTION? LIST 3 TYPES.
TO IMMOBILIZE A JOINT, REDUCE A FRACTURE, & ALIGN A BODY PART; MANUAL, SKIN, AND SKELETAL
WHAT IS PMMA? WHICH TYPES OF PROCEDURES WOULD PMMA BE USED IN?
POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE; USED TO SECURE AND CEMENT SOME ORTHO IMPLANTS. EX. ARE TOTAL KNEE AND HIP ARTHROPLASTY.
LIST REQUIRED EQUIPMENT FOR ARTHROSCOPY.
VIDEO MONITOR, LIGHT SOURCE, ARTHROSCOPY PUMP, PUMP TUBING, WATER OR SALINE, PATELLA SHAVER, CAMERA, PRINTER & PAPER, ESU
LIST VARIOUS ALLOYS IMPLANTS MAY BE COMPOSED OF. WHY SHOULD COMPONENTS BE MADE OF THE SAME ALLOY?
TITANIUM, STAINLESS STEEL, & COBALT CHROMIUM; DIFFT. ALLOYS WILL CORRODE CAUSING BREAKDOWN OF IMPLANT LEADING TO DELAYED HEALING AND EVEN INFECTION.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OSCILLATING AND RECIPROCATING SAW?
RECIPROCATING MOVES IN & OUT AND OSCILLATING VIBRATES BACK & FORTH
MOST FREQUENTLY USED HEMOSTATIC AGENTS IN ORTHO?HOW UTILIZED?
GELFOAM-USED IN PAD FORM & PLACED ON BONE WHERE CAPILLARY BLEEDING IS TAKING PLACE;AVITENE-APPLIED DRY WITH SMOOTH FORCEPS TO OOZING SURFACE OF BONE; THROMBIN-USED TOPICAL...NEVER INJECTED; BONE WAX-APPLIED TO WOUND SITE TO STOP OOZING FROM CUT SURFACES
WHAT'S CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME? HOW IS IT TREATED?
A COMMON ENTRAPMENT SYNDROME OF UPPER EXTREMITY THAT'S FREQUENTLY WORK RELATED AND POSSIBLY DUE TO REPEATED MOTIONS. IT CAN BE TREATED BY SURGICAL SURGICAL RELEASE OF THE TRANSVERSE CARPAL LIGAMENT TO RELIEVE PRESSURE ON THE MEDIAN NERVE
WHAT DOES ORIF MEAN? HOW IS IT ACCOMPLISHED?
OPEN REDUCTION INTERNAL FIXATION; THIS REQUIRES INTERNAL MANIPULATION OF THE BONE FRAGMENTS AND THE APPLICATION OF A STABILIZING OR FIXATING DEVICE (ORTHO IMPLANT)
HOW ARE ROTATOR CUFF INJURIES TREATED?
REPAIR TORN ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLES FROM THE SCAPULA AND CLAVICLE WITH ATTACHMENT TO THE GREATER HUMERAL TUBEROSITY
WHAT IS TKR? THR?
TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT; TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT