Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/99

Click to flip

99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Terra Amata
*France
*400,000 BCE
*Paleolithic peoples
-Compression Frame
-Two posts, saplings held by rocks
-Hearth
-Diff. places, diff. tasks
-hunter gatherers
Lascaux Cave
*France
*10,000 BCE
*Paleolithic peoples
-Arrangement of animals
-Spirituality
-Bird Man
-naves, apses and chambers
Lepenski Vir
*Serbia
*6300-4800 BCE
*Mesolithic peoples
-Village grouping, some larger than others
-Hearth, stone threshold
-Stone fish, central plaza/building
-Back end faces river... end slanted in adaptation to wind.
Tensile Frame
Most tensile structures are supported by some form of compression or bending elements
Plan
An architectural plan is a plan for architecture, and the documentation of written and graphic descriptions of the architectural elements of a building project including sketches, drawings and details.
Section/Cross Section
A cross section, also simply called a section, represents a vertical plane cut through the object, in the same way as a floor plan is a horizontal section viewed from the top.
Longitudinal Section
A section taken through the lengthwise dimension of a structure, organism, or other object
Elevation
An elevation is a view of a building seen from one side, a flat representation of one façade.
Volume
?
Compression Frame
?
site plan
A site plan is a specific type of plan, showing the whole context of a building or group of buildings.
Perspective
Perspective in drawing is an approximate representation on a flat surface of an image as it is perceived by the eye.
Isometric
An isometric uses a plan grid at 30 degrees from the horizontal in both directions, which distorts the plan shape.
Axometric
An axonometric uses a 45 degree plan grid, which keeps the original orthogonal geometry of the plan.
Skara Brae
*Scotland
*2000 BCE
*Neolithic peoples
-clyclopean masonry
-insulates the building
-built in furniture
Carnac
*France
*2000 BCE
*Neolithic
-menhirs, buried hole, placed upright stone
-element of architecture: ORDERING
-Some sort of ceremonial worship
New Grange
*Ireland
*2500 BCE
*Neolithic
-Barrow
-two functions: burial and worship
-spiraling carvings = eternity
-Corbelling (Corbel Vault) - first time not to use a megalith
Stone Henge
*England
*2750-1500 BCE
*Neolithic
-4 phases
-Blue stone, found in Wales
-Menhirs
-Mortise and Tenon
-Piers and Lintels
-Kept time with the solstice, agricultural meaning
Wattle and daub
Wattle and daub (or wattle-and-daub) is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw.
Dolmen
A dolmen, also known as a portal tomb, portal grave, or quoit, is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of three or more upright stones supporting a large flat horizontal capstone (table).
Gallery grave
A Gallery grave is a form of Megalithic tomb where there is no size difference between the burial chamber itself and the entrance passage.
Megalith
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. Megalithic describes structures made of such large stones, utilizing an interlocking system without the use of mortar or cement.
Lintel
A lintel can be a load-bearing building component, a decorative architectural element, or a combined ornamented structural item.
Trabeated
?
Menhir
dig a hole, place upright stone
Mortise and Tenon
the basic mortise and tenon comprises two components: the mortise hole and the tenon.
Cromlech or henge
?
Barrow
burial
corbelled vault
is an arch-like construction method that uses the architectural technique of corbeling to span a space or void in a structure, such as an entranceway in a wall or as the span of a bridge.
passage grave
passage tomb consists of a narrow passage made of large stones and one or multiple burial chambers covered in earth or stone. Megaliths are usually used in the construction of passage tombs, which usually date to the Neolithic.
Pier
?
Tectonics
?
Cyclopean Masonry
Cyclopean masonry is a type of stonework found in Mycenaean architecture, built with massive limestone boulders, roughly fitted together with minimal clearance between adjacent stones and no use of mortar.
Trilithon
A trilithon (or trilith) is a structure consisting of two large vertical stones (posts) supporting a third stone set horizontally across the top (lintel). It is commonly used in the context of megalithic monuments.
Jericho
*Israel/Palestine
*3000-1300 BCE
*Bronze Age peoples
-Wall, fortification
-Cyclopean Masonry
-TOWER, with interior stairway
-Built over time, round buildings with square buildings.
-Stones were rare and used only on the wall
Cob Construction
mud mised with a binder of straw and small sticks
Adobe
sun-dried, mud-brick made with binders as in cob construction
pise construction
earth compacted in forms
Half-Timber
heavy timber frame with infill, which can be earth, brick and stone
Catalhoyuk
*Turkey
*6000 BCE
*Neolithic
-No streets
-butt up against eachother
-travel by rooftop
-Shrine/Religious chamber with bull horns
Khirokitia
*Cyprus
*5500 BCE
*Bronze Age peoples
-Street paths unlike Catalhoyuk
-STONES, not adobe
Ziggurat of Ur-Nammu
*Ur (Iraq)
*2113-2096 BCE
-must climb to access building
-ascendance to heavens
earthly power
-Temple tower in the form of a step-pyramid
Ishtar Gates
*Babylon (Iraq)
*2000 BCE
*King Nebuchadnezzar II
-Fire baked tiles
-colors
-mud-brick, mortar wash
-elaborate entrance
Ziggurat
having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels.
Mastaba
type or ancient Egyptian tomb in the form of a flat-roofed rectangular structure with outward sloping sides that marked the burial site
Serdab
chamber inside the mastaba containing a statue of the deceased
Mortuary complex of Zoser
*Saqqara
*2680
*Imhotep
-closed concept
-sequence of chapels
-FIRST pyramid
-Fluted columns = Colonnade
Pyramids of Giza
*Giza
*2570-2500 BCE
*Khufu, Khafra, Mekaura
-notion of procession
-height of the pyramid equals the circumference of a circle
-cut and size of rock are remarkable
-kings chamber switch
-Capstone/Pyramidion
Great Sphinx
*Giza
*2550 BCE
*Ancient Egyptians
-MONOLITH stone
Orthogonal planning
right angles
very geometric
column (fluted)
...?
colonnade
sequence of columns
clerestory
The technology of the clerestory appears to originate in the temples of ancient Egypt. The term "clerestory" is applicable to Egyptian temples, where the lighting of the hall of columns was obtained over the stone roofs of the adjoining aisles, through slits pierced in vertical slabs of stone.
pyramid
is a structure whose outer surfaces are roughly triangular and converge to a single point at the top. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or any polygon shape, meaning that a pyramid has at least three triangular surfaces
step pyramid
These pyramids typically are large and made of several layers of stone.
capstone/pyrimidion
is the uppermost piece or capstone of an Egyptian pyramid in archaeological parlance.
spur wall
A wall of relatively short length that is at right angles to the main wall.
lotus capital
capital on top of a column in the form of a lotus
cavetto cornice
A concave bracket around the summits of walls or gates.
relief
To create a sculpture in relief is thus to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane.
Mortuary Temple of Metuhotep
*Deir el-Bahri
*2050 BCE
*Metuhotep/Ancient Egyptians
-first period of change, UNITY
-temple & tomb together
-merges the old and the new
-peristyle court
-man-made cave
Mortuary Temple of Hatsheptut
*Deir-el-Bahri
*1500 BCE
*Senmut
-First Queen
-Colonnaded front, light and darks
-Scaling, Piers and Lintels
-Levels of Hierarchy
-False Fronts
Temple of Amon
*Karnak
*1525-1350 BCE
*Ancient Egyptians
-New Kingdom
-Cosway leading to the nile
-Peristyle Gate
-Obelisks
-Hypostyle Hall
Temple of Ramses II
*Abu Simbel
*1250 BCE
*Ancient Egyptians, New Kingdom
-Cliffside
-four figures, wives
-peristyle
-dromos
-last of Egyptian temples
-Time of day, sun
Hypostyle Hall
In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a roof which is supported by columns, as in the Great Hypostyle Hall at Karnak.
Obelisk
tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top
Peristyle court
An open court with arcades around the inner walls.
Pylon
the gateway to the inner part of an Ancient Egyptian temple or Christian cathedral
Axis
?
Bas Relief
?
Troy
*Turkey
*3000-1300 BCE
*Trojans, Bronze Age
-small wall town
-rubble masonry on bottom
-Cyclopean on top
-6 stages
-MEGARON
Palace of Minos, Knossos
*Crete
*1600 BCE
*Bronze age peoples
-6/7/8 stories high
-labyrinth
-magazines
-tapering columns
-piano noble
Lion Gate
*Mycenae, Greece
*1250 BCE
*Mycenaeans
-piers and lintels
-corbelling
-triangular lion piece
Treasury of Atreus (Tomb of Agamemnon)
*Mycenae, Greece
*1400 BCE
*Myceneaeans
-dromos
-bronze pieces
-behive corbelling, diff from Egyptians because no use of columns
-Ashlar masonry
Heinrich Schliemann
Schliemann was an archaeological excavator of Troy, along with the Mycenaean sites Mycenae and Tiryns. His work lent weight to the idea that Homer's Iliad and Virgil's Aeneid reflect actual historical events.
Hittites
The Hittites were a Bronze Age people of Anatolia.
Mycenaean
Mycenaean Greece, the Greek-speaking regions of the Aegean Sea as of the Late Bronze Age
Minoan
Minoa, name of several bronze-age settlements in the Aegean.
Polis
literally means city in Ancient Greek
labyrinth
Its function was to hold the Minotaur, a mythical creature that was half man and half bull and was eventually killed by the Athenian hero Theseus. Daedalus had made the Labyrinth so cunningly that he himself could barely escape it after he built it.
Piano Nobile
is the principal floor of a large house
fresco
is any of several related mural painting types, executed on plaster on walls, ceilings or any other type of flat surface.
Polychromy
is one of the terms used to describe the use of multiple colors in one entity.
Temple of Artemis, Ephesos
*Turkey
*560-550 BCE
*Ancient Greeks, Ionians
-Ionic Order
-volutes
-stone base
-interior
two rows of columns that go around the edge of the temple known as dipteral, or Double peristyle
Temple of Apollo
*Delphi, Greece
*3rd-4th cent. BCE
*Ancient Greeks
-mountain area
-enter through the east, illuminate the morning
-oracle
Persepolis
*Iran
*518-460 BCE
*Darius and Xerxes
-Ionian influence, by Egyptians too
-Cross-fertilization
-lot like Mesopotamian and Egyptian building
-High, tall, thin columns
-bell shaped bases
-animal style/ram-headed capitals
-papyrus capital
-Columns arranged in Egyptian hypostyle
Theater, Epidaurus
*300 BCE
*Greece
*Greeks
-Amphitheater
-caveat
-orchestra
-Skene
Stoa of Attalos II
*Athens, Greece
*150 BCE
*Doric Below, Ionic above
*City-states band together
*Offices upstairs, market downstairs
*Ashlan Masonry
Propylaia
*Akropolis, Athens
*437-432 BCE
*Mnesikles
-Hexastyle temple
-two side wings that act as stoas, people to sit
-took a temple and morphed it
Temple of Athena Nike
*Akropolis, Athens
*427-424 BCE
*Kallikrates
-Ionic, big volutes
-AMPHIPROSTYLE - portico at the front and back
-Tetrastyle columns
Architrave, frieze... usually ionic do not have friezes
-no metopes, but sculpture work
Parthenon
*Akropolis, Athens
*447-432 BCE
*Iktinos and Kallikrates
-Octastyle
-peripteral, Doric
-Man is measure
-Athena by Phidias
-Entasis
-Frieze of Athenian Procession
Erechtheion
*Akropolis, Athens
*421-405 BCE
*Kallikrates
-Three temples in one
-first has ionic columns
-second you enter through a portico
-third, caryatids
-spring of poseidon
temenos
in a Greek temple site, refers to INSIDE the WALLS… the sacred district of the temple site.
bouleuterion
A bouleuterion was a building which housed the council of citizens (boule) in Ancient Greece.
proscenium
In a proscenium theatre, the audience directly faces the stage, which is typically raised several feet above front row audience level, and views the performance through the proscenium "arch".
Temple of Apollo
*Bassae, Greece
*5th cent BCE
*Iktinos
-high plan
-Doric, Hexastyle
-entry from NORTH
-door on adyton portion, faces east, illuminates
-columns attached to spurwalls
-Corinthian cap
Monumnt of Lysicrates
*Athens
*335 BCE
*?
-monument, NOT TEMPLE
-Tholos
free standing sculpture
Altar of Zeus
*Pergamon (Turkey)
*197-159 BCE
-Hellinistic
-flanking wings
-frieze, giant, gigantomachy
-ionic
-dynamism and theatricality
-enter from back
hypaethral
Hypaethral is an ancient temple with no roof