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29 Cards in this Set

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inorganic molecule
non-carbon-based molecule
hydrocarbon:
organic molecule composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms
functional group
group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules
hydrophilic
attracts water molecules
monomer
small molecular unit that is the building block of a larger molecule
polymer
long chain of small molecular units (monomers)
carbohydrate:
organic compound made of sugar molecules
monosaccharide
sugar containing one sugar unit
disaccharide:
sugar containing two monosaccharides
polysaccharide
long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers
starch
polysaccharide in plant cells that consists entirely of glucose monomers
glycogen:
polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers
cellulose:
polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls
lipid:
one of a class of water-avoiding compounds
hydrophobic
avoids water molecules
fat
organic compound consisting of a three-carbon backbone (glycerol) attached to three fatty acids
saturated fat
fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms
unsaturated fat:
fat with less than the maximum number of hydrogens in one or more of its fatty acid chains
steroid:
lipid molecule with four fused carbon rings
cholesterol:
steroid molecule present in the plasma membranes of animal cells
protein
polymer constructed from a set of 20 amino acid monomers
amino acid:
monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups
polypeptide:
chain of linked amino acids
denaturation
loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor
activation energy
minimum amount of energy required to trigger a chemical reaction
catalyst
agent that speeds up chemical reactions
enzyme
specialized protein that catalyzes the chemical reactions of a cell
substrate
specific reactant acted on by an enzyme
active site
region of an enzyme into which a particular substrate fits