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59 Cards in this Set

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What is Organic Chemistry?
Chemistry of compounds containing carbon.
Inorganic Chemistry
Chemistry of compounds not containing carbon.
What is the simplest organic compound?
Methane: CH4
Three ways to represent organic compounds are?
1. Condensed structural formula
2. Dash Formula
3. Bond-Line formula
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 is an example of what kind of representation?
Condensed n-pentane
Functional Groups:

What are Alkanes?
Carbon-Carbon Single Bond

Ex. 2-methylpentane
What are Alkenes?
(Olefins)
carbon--carbon double bond

Ex. 1-octene
What are Alkynes?
Carbon---Carbon Triple bond

Ex. 4-octyne
What are Aromatics?
(Arenes)
Cyclic compound triple bonded to another.
Ex. Benzene
What are Haloalkanes?
Alkyl halides,
carbon-Halogen Bond

Ex. 3-chloroheptane
What are Alcohols?
Carbon-Oxygen Hydrogen Bond

Ex. Ethanol
What are Ethers?
Carbon-Oxygen-Carbon bond

Ex. Diethyl Ether
What are Amines?
A Nitrgoen being bonded to Carbon or hydrogen

Ex. Diethyl Amine
What are Aldehydes?
A double bonded Oxygen bonded to just one carbon, on one side. (Hydrogen may be on other side)

Ex. 3-methylhexanal
What are Ketones?
A double bonded Oxygen bonded to just two carbons, one on each sides.

Ex. 2-Decanone
What are Carboxylic Acids?
A double bonded Oxygen bonded to just one carbon, on one side and an OH group on the other side.

Ex. Propanoic acid
What are Esters?
A double bonded Oxygen bonded to just one carbon, on one side and an oxygen bonded to a carbon on the other side.

Ex. Ethyl Butanoate
What are Amides?
A double bonded Oxygen bonded to just one carbon, on one side, a nitrogen on the other side bonded to two carbons. (carbon could be a hydrogen)

Ex. 7-methyl octanamide
What are Nitriles?
A carbon bonded to another carbon, which is then triple bonded to a Nitrogen.

Ex. 2-methylpentanenitrile
What is an Empirical Formula?
A chemical formula that shows the kinds of atoms and their RELATIVE numbers in a substance.
What is a Molecular Formula?
A chemical formula that indicates the ACTUAL number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a substance.
What is the Molecular and Empirical formula of Ethylene?
Molecular: C2H2

Empirical: CH2
What is the Molecular and Empirical formula of cyclohexane?
Molecular: C6H12

Empirical: CH2
What is the Molecular and Empirical formula of 1-pentene?
Molecular: C5H10

Empirical: CH2
Structural Theory of Organic Chemistry:

What are the two central fundamental premises?
1)The atoms of the elements in organic compounds can form a fixed # of bonds. The measure of this ability is called VALENCE.
Ex. Carbon is tetravalent; that is carbon atoms form "4" bonds.
Oxygen is divalent; oxygen atoms form "2" bonds.
Hydrogen and the halogens are monovalent; their atoms only form one bond.

2)A carbon atom can use one or more of its valences to form bonds to other carbon atoms.
What is an Isomer?
Different compounds that have the same molecular formula. There are many types of isomers.
Constitutional Isomer?
Different compounds that have the same molecular formula, but differ in their connectivity, that is, the sequence in which their atoms are bonded together.

Ex. Ethyl alcohol and dimethyl ether.
What is Saturation?
Carbon with max. amount of hydrogen attached to them. (alkanes)
What is Unsaturation?
Carbons with out the max. amount of hydrogens attached to them.

Always compared with the parent alkane.
Units of Saturation are AKA?
Double bond equivalents (DBE)
Index of Hydrogen deficiency(IHD)
Double bonds = __ units of Saturation?
1 unit
Cyclic Compounds = __ units of Saturation?
1 unit
Triple bonds = __ units of Saturation?
2 units
Aromatic rings = __ units of Saturation?
4 units (1 for the ring, 3 for each double bond)
What is the equation for finding the units of unsaturation?
Units Unsat.=
((2)(#C)+2)-((#H)-(#X)+(#N))
---------------------------
2

*Ignore Oxygen
What is the Units of Saturation in C4H10?
0 units
What is the Units of Saturation in CH3CH2CH2CH3?
0 units
What is the Units of Saturation in butane(C4H8)?
1 unit
What are Ionic Bonds?
Formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another to create ions (ionic bonds are formed between metal and a non-metal).
What is a covalent bond?
A bond that is formed when the two atoms share electrons (covalent bonds are formed between non-metals).
What is the Octet Rule?
Bonded atoms tend to possess or share a total of eight valence-shell electrons.
What are the exceptions to the Octet Rule?
1)Elements of the 3rd period and beyond, have "d" orbital for bonding. These elements can accomodate more than eight electrons in their valence shell and therefore can form more than four covalent bonds.

Ex. PCL5 and SF6

2) Some highly reactive molecules or ons have atoms with fewer than eight electrons in their outer shell.

Ex. BH3 and BX3 (X=Halogen)
What is a formal charge?
The unit positive or negative charge of atom in a molecule or ion (formal charges are integers, ie. +1, 0, -2, etc.)
The arithmetic sum of all of the formal charges of each atom equals the ____ ____ (also and integer) on the molecule or ion.
total charge
What equation is used to calculate the formal charge?
FC= Z-A

Z= Number of valence electrons it has at a neutral free atom (group #)

A= Number of valence electrons assigned to an atom in its boned state.
The total charge on the ion or molecule is calculated by adding all what?
The formal charges of each atom within the ion or molecule.
Ions always have a total charge other than ____.
Zero
Molecules always have a total charge of ____ .
Zero
What is Resonance stuctures?
Individual Lewis structures in cases where two or more lewis structures are equally good descriptions of a single molecule or ion. The individual resonance structures in such an instance are "averaged" to give a correct description of the real molecule or ion.
What is the Resonance theory?
This theory states that whenever a molecule or ion can be represented by two or more lewis structures that differ only in the position of the electrns, two things will be true.

1. None of the individual strutures, which we term "resonance structures," will be a correct representation for the molecule or ion. NONE will be in complete accord with the physical and chemical properties of the substance.

2. The actual molecule or ion will be better represented by a "resonance hybrid" of these structures.
What is an orbital?
A region of space where the probabilty of finding an electron is large.
What is a node?
An area of space where the probabilty of finding an electron is zero. Think of a "p" orbital. Also remeber the greater the number of nodes, the greater the energy.
What is the Pauli Exclusion Principle?
No two electrons can have the same four quantum #'s!!
Better Defn: A max. of two electrons may be placed in each orbital but only when the spins of the electrons are paired. We designate paired electrons as ( ). Unpaired electrons, which are not permitted in the same orbital, are designated as ( ) or ( ). Think of the three 2p orbitals (degenerate orbitals).
What are the 4 quantum numbers?
n(principle quantum #): 0 to infinity

l(angular momentum quantum #): 0 to n-l

m (magnetic quantum #): l to 0 to +l

*All three of these quantum #'s are always integers*

s(spin quantum #): (+1/2 or
-1/2)
What is Aufbau Principle?
Orbitals are filled up so that those of lowest energy are filled first.
What is Hund's Rule?
When we come to orbitals of equal energy (degenrate orbital) such as the three "p" orbital, we add one electron to each with their spins unpaired until each degenerate orbital contains one electron, then, we begin adding a second electron to each degenerate orbital so that the spins are paired.
What is the Heinsenburg Uncertainty principle?
We CANNOT know simultaneously the position and momentum of an electron. That is, we cannot pin down the electrons as precisely as our explanation suggests.
What are Atomic Orbitals (AO's)?
A region of space around an atom where the probability of finding an electron is large.
What are Molecular Orbitals (MO's)?
A region of space within a molecule where the probability of finding an electron is large.