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84 Cards in this Set

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What is the maximum demonstrated crosswind component?
17-KIAS
Type of Engine? for PA-44-180
4 cylinders, L-HAND, 180HP @2700rpm, carburetor, normally aspirated
Why is left engine labeled LO-360?
It rotates to the Left
How are the cylinders arranged?
HORIZONTALLY OPPOSED
How is the ignition provided?
engine driven magnetos which are independent of the aircraft's electrical system and each other.
Propeller- who makes it? Describe.
Hartzell, two-bladed, controllable pitch, constant speed, full feathering metal propellers
What are the instruments and equipment requirements for VFR day flight?
TOMATO A FLAMES


T-achometer
O-il Pressure Gauge
M-agnetic Compass
A-irspeed Indicator
T-emperature Guage (Liguid Cooled Engines)
O-Oil Temperature Guage (Air Cooled Engines)
A-ltimeter
F-uel Gauges
L-anding Gear Indiciation
A-nti-collision Lights
M-anifold Pressure
E-LT
S-eat Belts
List the airworthness requirements
AVIATES

A-irworthiness Directives Compliancy
V-ORs (30 days)
I-nspections (annual or 100 hour)
A-ltimeter (24 months)
T-ransponder (24 months)
E-LT (12 months, changes batts 1/2 useful life or 1-hr. cumm. use)
S-tatic Systems (24 months)
prop forward does what?
prop forward-oil pressure, regulated by the prop governor, dirves a piston, which moves the blades to low pitch-high RPM (UNFEATHERED) POSITION.
prop aft does what?
oil pressure is reduced by the propeller governor. This allows a nitrogen-charged cylinder with a large spring to drive the blades to a high pitch-low RPM (feathered) position
What does the oil pressure do to the propeller?
oil pressure-increased,drives a piston: (unfeathered)
forward-low pitch-high RPM
aft-oil pressure allows nitrogen charged cylinder to drive blades to high pitch-low RPM (feathered)
What is controllable pitch?
the ability to control engine RPM by varying the pitch of the propeller blades.
Which unit regulates oil pressure to the propeller?
propeller governor
What is the function of the nitrogen cylinder?
PROP-AFT, oil pressure is reduced by prop governor. This allows a nitrogen-charged cylinder with a large spring on the opposite side of the piston to drive the blades to a HIGH PITCH-LOW RPM (feathered) position.
Which unit regulates oil pressure to the propeller?
PROPELLER GOVERNOR which drives a piston
What is the purpose of the spring in the prop dome?
When prop aft, oil pressure is reduced by PG. This allows a nitrogen-charged cylinder with a large SPRING on the opposite side of the piston to drive the blades to a HIGH PITCH/LOW RPM (feathered) position
Define constant speed.
After RPM setting is selected with the blue prop control handles, the prop governor will automatically vary oil pressure inside the propeller hub to change the propeller blade pitch in order to maintain a constant engine RPM. Because of this, changes in power setting (MP) and flight attitude will not cause a change in RPM.
What unit adjust the propeller to maintain a constant RPM and how does it do it?
After RPM setting is selected with the PROP, the PROP GOV will automatically vary oil pressure inside the propeller hum to change the Prop blade PITCH in order to maintain a CONSTANT ENGINE RPM. So changes in power setting (MP)and flight attitude wil NOT cause a change in RPM.
define CONSTANT SPEED
Changes in power setting (MP) and FLIGHT ATTITUDE will NOT cause a change in RPM
define FULL FEATHERING
When the propeller blades are in ALIGNMENT with the relative wind, they are feathered. Accomplished by moving the blue prop control handel to the full AFT position. takes 6 seconds.
Will the propeller ALWAYS feather?
centrifugal stop pin prevents engine feathering below 950 RPM. However, if oil pressure is lost, the prop will feather when the RPM is above 950 RPM.
What are the centrifugal stop pins?
They prevent the engine feathering below 950 RPM. The purpose is to allow the prop blades to remain in a LOW PITCH upon engine shutdown. Thus preventing excessive loads on the engine starter during the next engine start.
What is the true purpose of the CENTRIFUGAL STOP PINS?
Prevents engine feathering below 950 RPM The purpose of this is to allow the prop blades to remain in a low pitch upon engine shutdown-prevents excessive loads on the engine starter during the next engine start.
Factors used by manufacturer to determine Vmca
Acronym: ATOM2F2LSBP

Aft CG (at rear CG limit)
Trim in takeoff position
Out of ground effect
Maximum takeoff weight at sea level (or at a weight that produces most unfavorable Vmca)
Maximum available power or takeoff power on operating engine
Flaps (wing) in takeoff position
Flaps (cowl) in takeoff position
Landing gear retracted
Standard atmospheric conditions (29.92”, 15 deg. C, sea level)
Bank up to 5 degrees into operating engine
Prop windmilling (or feathered if equipped with autofeather)


No more than 150 lbs. of rudder pressure required
Must be able to maintain heading within 20 degrees
What is the maximum baggage capacity?
200 pounds
Define VSSE
Safe speed for intentional engine failure
What is the correct action for a propeller overspeed?
retard the throttle. The propeller control should be moved to full 'DECREASE RPM" and then set if any control is available.
Describe the electrical system.
14 volt electrical system which utilizes push-pul type cricuit breakers
12 volt, 35 amp hour battery
2, 70 amp, engine driven alternators
What are the indications of a failed alternator?
an annunciator panel light and a red, pump inoperative indicator on the vacuum gauge.
Will the engines continue to run with the alternator and battery master switches
ss
Describe the vacuum system.
2 engine driven vacuum pumps
operates the attitude gyro
suction limits 4.8-5.2
failure of a vac pump indicated by annunciator panel light and a red, pump inoperative indicatior on the vacuum gauge. One pump will do the job OK.
Which instruments are vacuum operated?
attitude gyro and on aircraft w/o slaving mechanisms installed, the HSI.
What are the normal vacuum operating limits?
Suction limits are 4.8-5.2 inches of mercury at 2000 RPM
How many vacuum pumps does the PA-44 have?
2 engine driven vacuum pumps.
What indications would occur in the event of a vacuum pump failure?
AN ANNUNCIATOR PANEL LIGHT AND A RED, PUMP INOPERATIVE INDICATOR ON THE VACUUM GAUGE.
Describe the stall warning system.
2 electric stall detectors on left wing
INBOARD detector provdes stall warning at flaps 25/40
OUTBOARD at flaps 0/10.
2 tabs are to provide adequate stall warning at varied angles of attack.
Describe the fuel system
equipped with a 3-position fuel selector for each engine. ON, OFF, X-FEED
Explain how to cross feed fuel.
ONLY STRAIGHT & LEVEL FLIGHT
EX: Left engine with fuel from right tank.
1 left engine elec boost pump on
2. left fuel selector to X-FEED
3. check left fuel pressure
4 left engine boost pump off
5 check fuel pressure
Describe the landing gear system.
HYDRAULICALLY ACTUATED, FULLY RETRACTABLE, TRICYCLE-TYPE.
Propeller overspeed is usually caused by...
a malfunction in the propeller governor which allows the propeller blades to rotate to FULL LOW PITCH.
Hydraulic pressure for gear operation is provided by..
an electrically powered reversible hydraulic pump.
the gear is held in the UP position soley by..
hydraulic pressure. Springs assist in gear extension and in locking the gear in the down position.
After the gear is down and the downlock hooks engaged, springs...
maintain force on each hook to keep it locked until it is released by applying hydraulic pressure with the gear selector.
How is the landing gear actuated? Describe the pump.
HYDRAULICALLY ACTUATED. Hydraulic pressure for gear operation is provided by an electrically powered reversible hydraulic pump.
What keeps the gear in the UP/DOWN position?
UP-solely by hydraulic pressure.
DOWN-springs assist in gear extension and in locking the gear in the down position., After down, the downlock hooks engage, springs maintain force on each hook to keep it locked until it is relased by applying hydraulic pressure with the gear selector.
If hydraulic pressure is suddenly lost in flight, what indication, if any would you have?
ss
In what 3 situations will the landing gear horn activate?
1. Gear is not locked down with throttle lever positioned elow approx 15" MP on 1 or both engines
2. Gear is not lock down with wing flaps @ 25 or 40
3. Gear handel is in the UP POSITION on the ground
What unit will not allow the gear to be retracted on the ground?
a squat switch located on the left main landing gear. On the ground, the switch is open, preventing electrical current from reaching the hydraulic pump. Once airborne, the strut becomes fully extended, closing the switch that allows current to reach the hydraulic pump.
What is the procedure to extend the gear manually (Emergency Gear Extension)?
Place the gear selector in the DOWN position
PULL the red emergency gear extension knob to release the hydraulic pressure
Gear will free-fall down
Positive gear down indication is 3 GREEN LIGHTS
Limited to 100KIAS due to air-load on nose gear
What airspeed is of importance during manual gear extension?
100 knots due to air-load on the nose gear.
Are the brake and the landing gear hydraulics interconnected?
ss
If you lose gear hydraulics, will you still have brakes?
ss
What indicates that the gear is in transit and the hydraulic pump is activated?
ss
What type of braking system is used by the Seminole? Where is the brake fluid serviced?
ss
What are the maximum taxi, takeoff and landing weights?
ss
What are the drag factors on light twins?
ss
Who determines Vmc for a particular aircraft?
ss
Define Vmc
ss
Why is an aft CG used in determining Vmc?
Unfavorable CG position usually means aft, because of the reduced rudder control.
What are the factors in determining Vmc?
ss
Define the critical engine.
ss
List factors used to determine the critical engine.
ss
What causes an aircraft to slideslip with the loss of an engine, and what action is required to correct this?
ss
How do you deactivate the electric stall tabs?
DEACTIVATED on the ground through the use of the SQUAT SWITCH on the left main landing gear
What is the gross weight of the Piper Seminole?
3800 lbs.
Standard empty weight of the Seminole?
2586 lbs
Standard useful load of the Seminole?
1230
Wing Span of the Seminole
38.6 feet
Length of the Seminole
27.6 feet
Height of the Seminole?
8.5 Feet
Usuable Fuel of the Seminole?
108 gallons
Maximum Speed, TAS at Gross Weight?
168 kts
Normal Crusing Speed?
162 kts
Crusing Range?
610 nm (45 min reserves @ 75% power)
Stall Speed with flaps down full 40 degrees
IAS 55 kts
Service Ceiling
Twin (100 fpm)
Single (50 fpm)
15,000 feet
3,800 feet
Take off Distane over 50-foot obstacle
2,200 feet
Landing Distance over 50-foot obstacle
1480 feet
Standard Useful Load is:
ramp weight minus standard equipped weight.
How do the alternators maintain equal load?
through the use of a voltage regulator
Loss of one alternator is indicated by:
an annunciator light and a zero indication on the ammeter. The remaining alternator will normally provide adequate electrical power.
Over-voltage protection is provided if:
system exceeds 17 volts.
If over voltage occurs, what is the source of electrical power?
battery
The battery is used as a source of electrical power and...
starting engine, high drain items-lights, vent fan, heater, gear hydraulic pump, radios