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20 Cards in this Set

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Describe the Universal system for tooth numbering? (p124)
In the Universal numbering system, the numbering bengins with the maxillary (upper) right 3rd molar (tooth 1), proceeds around the arch to the maxillary left third molar (tooth 16), then to the mandib (lower) left 3rd molar (tooth 17) and around the mandib arch to the mandib right 3rd molar (tooth 32)
Describe the Federation Dentaire Interantionale system for tooth numbering? (p124)
in teh FDI system, the first digit of the tooth mumber represents a quad (1, maxillary right,; 2, max L; 3, mandib L; and 4, mandib R). The 2nd digit represents the tooth (1, a Cintral incisor, regardless of the arch or quad; 2, lateral incisor; 3, canine; and so on to 8, 3rd molar). The max L 1st premolar would be identified as tooth 24; the madib R 2nd molar would be IDed as tooth 47.
Describe a class 1 cavity (p 129)
Class 1 (I) lesions occur in pits and fissures on the facial, lingual, and occlusal surfaces of molars and premolars and, less often, the lingual surfaces of maxillary anterior teeth (most freq lateral incisors, less freq central incisors, rarely canines)
Describe a class 2 cavity (p 129)
Class 2 (II ) lesions occur in the proximal surfaces of the posterior teeth (molars and premolars). If a proximal surface of a posterior tooth is involved in a restoration, it is a Class 2 restoration.
Describe a class 3 cavity (p 129)
Class 4 (III) lesions occur in the proximal surfaces of anterior teth (central and lateral incisors and canines). Class 3 cavities do not involve an incisal angle.
Describe a class 4 cavity (p 129)
Class 4 (IV) lesions occur in the proximal surfaces of anterior teeth when the incisal angle requires restoration. the angle may have tho be remved because of its fragility or for proper placement of the restoration, or it may have been fractured by trauma.
Describe a class 5 cavity (p 129)
Class 5 9V)lesions occur in smooth facial and lingual surfaces in the gingival 3rd of teeth. Class 5 lesions begin close to the gingiva and may involve a cementum or dentin surface as well as enamel.
Describe a class 6 cavity (p 129)
Class 6 9Vi) lesions are in pit or wear defects on the incisal edges of anterior teeth or the cusp tips of posterior teeth.
What is the advantage of stainless steel hand instruments over carbon steel hand instruments? P 131
SS instruments do not rust when steralized.
What is meant when a hand instrument is "balanced"? P 132
An instrument is balanced when the working end of the blade is in line with the long axis of the handel.
Describe a Hatchet (p. 133-134)
A hatchet has a blade and cutting edge on a plane with the long axis of the handel; the shank has one or more angles. The face of the blade of the hatchet will be directed either to the L or the R in relation to the handle, and the instrument is usually supplied in a double-ended form. There are L and R cutting ends of the double-ended hatchet.
Describe a Chisel (p. 133-134)
A chisel has a blade that is either aligned with the handle, slightly angled, or curved from the long axis of the handle, with the working end at R angle to the handle.
Describe a gingival margin trimmer (p. 133-134)
A gingival margin trimmer is similar to an enamel hatchet, except that the blade is curved and the bevel for the cutting ecge at the end of the blade is always on the outside of the curve; the face of the instrument is on the inside of the curve. GMTs, like hatchets and spoons, come n pairs Land R. There are also esial GMTs and distal GMTs. This, a set of gingival margin trimmers is composed of 4 instruments (or 2 double ended); Land R cutting misial and Land R cutting Distal margin trimmers.
Describe a hoe (p. 133-134)
A hoe has a cutting edge that is at a R andgle to the handle, like that of a chisel. however, its blade has a greater angle from the long axis of the handle than does that of the chisel; its shank also has 1 or more angles.
Describe a spoon (p. 133-134)
A spoon blade is curved, the cutting edge at the end of the blade is a semicircle. Theis gives the instrument an outer convexity and an inn3r concavity that make it look like a spoon. Spoons with a small circular, or disk-shaped blade at its end are called discoid spoons.
What are the 2 different strokes IDed in the use of hand cutting instruments? P134-136
1. in horizantal strokes, in which the long axis of the blade is directed at between 45-90 deg to the surface being planed or scraped or
2. with vertical or chopping strokes in which the blade is nearly parallel to the wall or margin being planed.
What are the 3 numbers in a 3 numbered instrument formula?
The 1st # is the width of the blade in tenths of a mm; the 2nd # is the length of the blade in mm; and the 3rd # is the blade angle, the angle the blade makes with the long axis of ht handle, in centigrades.
What are the 3 numbers in a 3 numbered instrument formula?
The 1st # is the width of the blade in tenths of a mm; the 2nd # is the cutting edge angle, the angle the primary cutting edge makes with the long axis of the handle, in centigrades; the 3rd # is the length of the blade in mm; and the 4th # is the blade angle, the angle the blade makes with the long axis of ht handle, in centigrades.
What is the difference between a chisel and a hoe?
A chisel may have blade that is angled from the handle up to 12.5 c or 45deg. A hoe blade is angled more than 12.5 c.
What does the term contra-angle mean? 148
contra-angle indicates that the head ofthe handpiece is angled 1st away from and then back toward, the long axis of the handle.