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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Adenocarcinoma
a malignant tumor arising from a glandular organ.
Adenoma
a benign tumor made of epithelial cells, usually arranged like a gland.
Agranulocytosis
an acute disease marked by a deficit or absolute lack of granulocytic white blood cells.
Alopecia
absence or loss of hair.
Anaplasia
loss of cellular differentiation and function, characteristic of most malignancies.
Benign
not recurrent or progressive.
Biopsy
the obtaining of a representative tissue sample for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis.
Brachytherapy
in radiation therapy, the use of implants of radioactive materials such as radium, cesium, iridium, or gold at the treatment site.
Carcinoma
a new growth or malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue and may infiltrate local tissues or produce metastases.
Carcinoma in situ
malignant cell changes in the epithelial tissue that do not extend beyond the basement membrane.
Carcinogenesis
the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells, often as a result of chemical, viral, or radioactive damage to genes.
Chemotherapy
drug therapy used, for example, to treat infection, cancers, and other diseased and conditions.
Cyst
a closed sac or pouch, with a definite wall, that contains fluid, semifluid, or solid material. It is usually an abnormal structure resulting from developmental anomalies, obstruction of ducts, or parasitic infection.
Extravasation
the escape of fluid from its physiologic contained space into the surrounding tissue.
Fibroadenoma
an adenoma with fibrous tissue forming a dense stroma.
Grading
standard measurement or assessment.
Hypertrophy
an increase in the size of an organ or structure, or of the body, owing to growth rather than tumor formation. This term generally is restricted to an increase in size or bulk that results not from an increase in number of cells, but rather from an increase in cellular components, such as proteins.
Hyperplasia
excessive proliferation of normal cells in the normal tissue arrangement of an organ.
Invasive
tending to spread, esp. the tendency of a malignant process or growth to spread into healthy tissue.
Leukopenia
abnormal decrease of white blood cells usually below 5000.
Malignant
growing worse; resisting treatment, said of cancerous growths. Tending or threatening to produce death; harmful.
Metastasis
movement of bacteria or body cells from one part of the body to another; change in location of a disease or of its manifestations or transfer from one organ or part to another not directly connected.
Morbidity
state of being diseased; the number of sick persons or cases of disease in relationship to a specific population.
Mortality
the condition of being mortal; the number of deaths in a population.
Myelosuppression
inhibition of bone marrow function.
Neoplasm
a new and abnormal formation of tissue, as a tumor or growth. It serves no useful function, but grows at the expense of the healthy organism.
Oncology
the branch of medicine dealing with tumors.
Palliation
relieving or alleviating without curing; an agent that alleviates or eases a painful or uncomfortable condition.
Papilloma
a benign epithelial tumor; epithelial tumor of skin or mucous membrane consisting of hypertrophied papillae covered by a layer of epithelium. Included in this group are warts, condylomas, and polyps.
Radiation
the process by which energy is propagated through space or matter; the emission of rays in all direction from a common center; ionizing rays used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Radiotherapy
the treatment of a disease with ionizing or nonionizing radiation.
Sarcoma
a cancer arising from mesenchymal tissue such as muscle or bone, which may affect the bones, bladder, kidneys, liver, lungs, parotids, and spleen.
Staging
the process of classifying tumors, esp. malignant tumors, with respect to their degree of differentiation, to their potential for responding to therapy, and to the patient’s prognosis.
Stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth.
Thrombocytopenia
an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets.
Tumor
a swelling or enlargement; one of the four classic signs of inflammation; an abnormal mass. Growth or proliferation that is independent of neighboring tissues is a hallmark of all tumors, benign and malignant.
Tumor markers
a substance whose presence in blood serum serves as a biochemical indicator for the possible presence of a malignancy. Examples of markers and malignancies they may indicate are carcinoembryonic antigen for cancers of the colon, lung, breast, and ovary; beta subunit of chorionic gonadotropin for trophoblastic and testicular tumors; alpha-fetoprotein for testicular teratocarcinoma and primary hepatocellular carcinoma; and prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer.
Vesicant
blistering; causing or forming blisters; an agent used to produce blisters. It is much less severe in its effects than are escharotics.
Xerostomia
dry mouth.
Nadir
lowest point (in oncology of the WBC or RBC count)
Neutropenia
abnormally low Neutrophils count
Remission
lessening of therapy or condition