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45 Cards in this Set

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Science:
Guided by _______
Explained by reference to Natural Law.
Testable against the ______
Conclusions are ___ and ___-
Natural Law
Obersvable World
Tenative; falsifiable
Macromolcules in organisms are more complex than those in nonliving matter
Chemical Uniquness
Macromolecules-- cells-- organisms--species-population
Complexity and Hierarchial Organization
Basic units of living system
Cells
Molecule of inheritance; contains instructions for all inheritable traits
DNA
all of the biochemical reactions occuring in the cells; organisms use energy to stockpile, teardown, build, and eliminate materials to promote their survival and repro
Metabolism
Characteristic changes an organism from origin to adult
Development
Living things respond to stimuli in the enviornment(irritability)
Organisms depend directly or indirectly on 1 another for materials and energy
Environmental Interaction
Charact of Animals:
DNA located in nucleus are ____.
Multicellular
Not capable of making their own food______
Cells not bound by cell walls
Eukaryotes
Heterotrophs
general approach used by scientists to gather info
Scientific Method
O
S
H
P
E
D
C
T
OBSERVATION
LITERATURE SEARCH
HYPOTHESIS
PREDICTION
EXPERIMENT
DATA
CONCLUSION
THEORY FORMATION
observe some aspect of the natural world; identify a question or problem
Observation
testable claim arising from scientific theoris, possible answers, testable, based on other observations
Hypothesis
state what one should abserve about the ? if the hypothesis is valid
Prediction
Devise an experiment to test your hypothesis; Controlled experiment: Experiment group-> subjected to a given treatment; Control group-> untreated group
experimentation
Preferred datat type: mathematical(unbiased)
Data
a hypothesis may be elevated to the status of a theory if it is not rejected with repeated testing over time
theory formation
A system of ideas and concepts assembled to order and make sense out of data or observations
theory
powerful theories that guide extensive research
paradigms
replacement of paradigms
scientific revolution
112 elements; 92 occur in nature
.
Carbon 18.5%; Oxygen 65; Hydrogen 9.5; Nitrogen 3.3; phosphorus 1
most organic molecules are built on these 6 elements
anything that takes up space and has a mass
matter
electrically neutral
atoms
atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Isotopes
transfer of 1 or more electrons from 1 atom to another; ions are formed; ions of opp. charge are attracted to each other
Ionic Bonds
electrons are shared between atoms
Covalent bonds (strong)
Electrons are shared equally; no partial charges result
Nonpolar CB
Eletrons are not shared equally; partial charges form
polar CB
Result from unequal charge distribution within molecules; weak bond; bond between H atom and another molecule already involved in a polar covalent bond
Hydrogen Bond
Molecules that dissociated in solution to produce a hydrogen ion.
Acid
Molecule that dissociates in solution to produce an hydroxyl ion
Base
Product of the reaction between an acid and base
salt
PH below 7
=7
above 7
acid
neutral
base
any substance that tends to keep pH levels constant when acids or bases are added; can bind to or realease H or OH
buffer
__ of total water on earth in crust
___ actually free
___ in ocean
___ fresh water
___ polar ice
___ drinking water
95
5
97
3
75
1
Produced by autotrophs photosyn.; contain C H and O usually in ration 1C: 2H: 1O
Carbohydrates
Simple sugars with a C backbone of 3-7 C atoms
Monosaccharides
Hexose (6C) sugars
Glucose
Galactose
Fructose
Pentose (5C) Sugars
Ribose
Deoxyribose
2 monosac bonded
Disacch.
Maltose(malt sugar)
Sucrose(table sugar)
Lactose(milk sugar)
Glucose+glucose
Glucose+Fructose
Glucose+Galactose
Chains of monosacc(polymers)
Polysaccharides
polymer of glucose
Stored in liver and muscle cells
Glycogen
Primary storage form of glucose in plants; branced; most abundant organic material on earth
Cellulose