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120 Cards in this Set

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…grapelike outpouchings…(L. ______, hollow)
alveoli; alveus
…the ability of an organism to exchange respiratory gases simultaneously with both air and water.
bimodal breathing
Ventricular contraction generates the fluid pressure, called _____ ________, that forces blood through the pulmonary and systemic circuits.
blood pressure
…are paired invaginations of the ventral body wall that are folded into a series of leaf like lamellae.
book lungs
In a ______ ___________ ______, blood circulates in the confines of tubular vessels.
closed circulatory system
When the ventricles relax, the arterial pressure drops, and the lowest pressure that remains in the arteries before the next ventricular contraction is called the _________ ________.
diastolic pressure
Most aquatic invertebrates carry out gas exchange with _____.
blood cells
…is the circulating fluid of animals with an open circulatory system.
…is an internal sac-shaped respiratory organ.
… (L. ______, clear water) is the extracellular fluid that accumulates in the _____ vessels.
lympha; lymph
In an ____ ___________ ______, the heart pumps hemolymph out into the body cavity or at least through parts of the cavity, where the hemolymph bathes the cells, tissues, and organs.
open circulatory system
______ (Gr., anything formed or molded) is the straw-colored, liquid part of blood.
_____ is plasma from which the proteins involved in blood clotting have been removed.
The maximum pressure achieved during ventricular contraction is called the ________ ________.
systolic pressure
Some terrestrial invertebrates (e.g., insects, centipedes, and some mites, ticks, and spiders) have ________ _______ consisting of highly branched chitin-lined tubes called ________.
tracheal system; tracheae
Any system of moving fluids that reduces the functional diffusion distance that nutrients, wastes, and gases must traverse is an internal transport system or ___________ ______.
circulatory system.
The two basic types of circulatory systems are ____ and ______. ____systems generally circulate hemolymph, and ______ systems circulate blood.
open; closed; open; closed
Blood is a type of __________ tissue made up of blood cells (red blood cells and white blood cells), plasma, and platelets.
The _________ heart pumps blood through a series of vessels in the following order: arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, and back to the heart.
The action of the heart consists of cyclic contraction (_______) and relaxation (________). ________ contraction generates blood pressure that forces blood through the closed system of vessels.
systole; diastole; Systolic
The _________ system consists of one-way vessels that help return fluids and proteins to the ___________ system.
lymphatic; circulatory
Animals that respire ___________ need a constant supply of oxygen. The process of acquiring oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide is called _________ ___________.
aerobically; external respiration
The exchange of ______ and ______ _______ occurs across respiratory surfaces. Such surfaces include gills, cutaneous surfaces, and lungs.
oxygen; carbon dioxide
The air-conducting portion of the respiratory system of air-breathing vertebrates moves air into (inhalation) and out of (exhalation) this system. This process of air movement is called ___________.
______ and ______ _______ diffuse from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration.
Oxygen; carbon dioxide
Once in the blood, oxygen diffuses into red blood cells and binds to __________ for transport to the tissues. Carbon dioxide is transported bound to __________, as well as in the form of the ___________ ion and ________ acid.
hemoglobin; hemoglobin; bicarbonate; carbonic
Respiratory pigments are organic compounds that have either metallic ______ or ____ that binds oxygen. Examples include hemoglobin, hemocyanin, hemerythrin, and chlorocruorin.
copper; iron
…these chemicals act on the same cell…
autocrine agents
…helps keep the eggs at a temperature between 33 and 37° C.
brood (incubation) patch
…is a sac that lies just dorsal to the cloaca and empties into it. Although well developed during the bird's embryological development, it begins to shrink soon after hatching.
bursa of Fabricius
The glucocorticoids, such as ________, help regulate overall metabolism and the concentration of blood sugar.
…(Gr. endo,within + krinein, to separate)…have no ducts, and instead secrete chemical messengers, called hormones, directly into the tissue space next to each endocrine cell.
endocrine glands
The study of endocrine glands and their hormones.
…secrete chemicals into ducts that, in turn, empty into body cavities or onto body surfaces (e.g., mammary, salivary, and sweat glands).
exocrine glands
Endocrine glands or cells secrete ________ that the bloodstream transports to nonadjacent target cells.
Many cells secrete chemicals that alter physiological conditions in the immediate vicinity. Most of these chemicals act on the same cell or adjacent cells and do not accumulate in the blood.
local chemical messengers
Overall, scientists now recognize that the nervous and the endocrine systems work together as an all-encompassing communicative and integrative network called the ______________ ______.
neuroendocrine system
Some specialized neurons (called neurosecretory cells) secrete _____________ (neurohormones). The blood or other body fluids transport ____________ to nonadjacent target cells, where neuropeptides exert their effects.
As presented in Chapter 24, neurons secrete chemicals called _________________ that act on immediately adjacent target cells.
…these chemicals act on …adjacent cells
paracrine agents
…are chemical messengers released to the exterior of one animal that affect the behavior of another individual of the same species.
By definition, a ______ ____ has receptors to which chemical messengers either selectively bind or on which they have an effect.
target cell
The _________ (Gr. oura, tail + physis, growth) is a discrete structure in the spinal cord of the tail. (fishes)
This process of focusing light rays precisely on the retina is called...
This series of membrane changes triggers a similar cycle in an adjacent region of the membrane, and the wave of depolarization moves down the axon as an...
action potential. a relatively long, cylindrical process that conducts signals (information) away from the cell body.
The...has a a large, central nucleus. (neurons)
cell body an outgrowth of the medulla oblongata. It coordinates motor activity associated with limb movement, maintaining posture, and spatial orientation.
External to the corpus striatum is the..., which a large groove divides into right and left cerebral hemispheres.
The motor neuron in figure 24.1b has many short, threadlike branches called...(Gr. dendron, tree), which are actually extensions of the cell body and conduct signals toward the cell body.
...are changes in the membrane potential that are confined to a relatively small region of the plasma membrane.
Graded potentials
Some reptiles possess a...that develops from outgrowths of the roof of the optic tectum (midbrain).
median (parietal) eye the enlargement where the spinal cord enters the brain.
medulla oblongata
The functional unit of the nervous system is a highly specialized cell called the...(Gr. "nerve").
An...(L. dim. of oculus, eye) is simply a small cup lined with light-sensitive receptors and backed by light-absorbing pigment.
For example, rattlesnakes and other pit vipers have heat-sensitive...on each side of the face between the eye and nostril. These depressions are lined with sensory epithelium containing receptor cells that respond to temperatures different from the snakes' surroundings.
pit organs
When a pigment (_________) in a rod cell absorbs light energy, the energy that this reaction releases triggers the graded potential in an axon and then an action potential that leaves the eyeball via the optic nerve.
For this reason, conduction along myelinated fibers is known as...(L. saltare, to jump). It takes less time for an impulse to jump from node to node along a myelinated fiber than to travel smoothly along an unmyelinated fiber.
saltatory conduction
Bats, shrews, several cave-dwelling birds (oilbird, cave swiftlet), whales, and dolphins can determine distance and depth by a form of echolocation called...
sonar (biosonar).
Most georeceptors are...(Gr. statos, standing + kystis, bladder). A...consists of a fluid-filled chamber lined with cilia-bearing sensory epithelium; within the chamber is a solid granule called a statolith. Any movement of the animal changes the position of the statolith and moves the fluid, thus altering the intensity and pattern of information arising from the sensory epithelium.
Certain flagellated protozoa (Euglena) that contain chlorophyll possess a mass of bright red photoreceptor granules called the...
stigma (pl., stigmata). the junction between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron or effector cell.
In the crevices between the papillae are thousands of specialized receptors called _____ ____. _____ ____ are barrel-shaped clusters of chemoreceptor cells called gustatory cells and supporting cells arranged like alternating segments of an orange.
taste buds; Taste buds
The functional unit of the nervous system is the neuron. Neurons are specialized to produce signals that can be communicated from one part of an animal's body to another. Neurons have two important properties: ____________ and ____________.
excitability and conductivity
A typical neuron has three anatomical parts: _________, a ____ ____, and an ____.
dendrites; cell body; axon
The language (signal) of a neuron is the nerve impulse or ______ _________.
action potential
The plasma membrane of a resting neuron is _________, meaning that the fluid on the inner side of the membrane is negatively charged with respect to the positively charged fluid outside the membrane.
When a _________ ________ is applied to a resting neuron, the neuron depolarizes, causing an action potential.
threshold stimulus
Although some animals have __________ synapses that transmit neuronal activity from one neuron to the next, most advanced animals us ________ neurotransmitter molecules.
electrical; chemical
Among animals more complex than sponges, five general evolutionary trends in the nervous system are apparent. That is the more complex an animal,...
a. the more detailed its nervous system. b. the more cephalization concentrates receptors and nervous tissue in an animal's anterior end. c. the more bilateral symmetry, which has led to paired nerves, muscles, sensory structures, and brain centers. This pairing facilitates ambulatory movements, such as climbing, crawling, flying, or walking. d. the more interneurons it has. e. the more complicated its behavior, and the more neurons (especially interneurons) concentrated in an anterior brain and bilaterally organized ganglia.
The vertebrate nervous system has two main divisions. The _______ _______ ______ is composed of the brain and spinal cord, and the __________ _______ ______ is composed of all the nerves (bundles of axons and/or dendrites) outside the brain and spinal cord.
central nervous system; peripheral nervous system
The spinal cord of a vertebrate serves two important functions. It is the connecting link between the brain of an animal and the most of the body, and it is involved in spinal ______ actions. A ______ is a predictable, involuntary response to a stimulus.
reflex; reflex
The number of ______ ______ is directly related to the number of segments in the trunk and tail of a vertebrate.
spinal nerves
The vertebrate brain divides into the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain. The hindbrain is continuous with the spinal cord and includes the _______ _________, __________, and ____.
medulla oblongata; cerebellum; pons
The ________ is a thickened region of gray matter that integrates visual and auditory signals. The _________ contains the pineal gland, pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and thalamus. The anterior part of the _________ expanded during evolution to give rise to the cerebral cortex.
midbrain; forebrain; forebrain
In addition to the paired spinal nerves, the vertebrate peripheral nervous system includes 12 pairs of _______ ______ in reptiles, birds, and mammals. Fishes and amphibians have only the first 10 pairs.
cranial nerves
The _________ nervous system consists of two antagonistic parts: the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
A stimulus is any form of energy an animal can detect with its receptors. Receptors are nerve endings of _______ _______ or specialized cells that respond to stimuli, such as chemical energy, mechanical energy, light energy, or radiant energy.
sensory neurons
Receptors transduce energy from one form to another. Stimulation of a receptor initiates a ______ potential, which creates an ______ potential that travels along a nerve pathway to another part of the nervous system, where it is perceived.
graded; action
What type of receptor responds to chemicals in the environment?
What type of receptor responds to the force of gravity?
georeceptors, called statocysts
What type of receptor detects the water content of air?
What type of receptor responds to sound?
phonoreceptors, such as tympanic organs
What type of receptor responds to light?
photoreceptors, such as stigmata, ocelli, compound eyes, and complex camera eyes
What type of receptor responds to mechanically induced changes caused by stretching?
What type of receptor senses touch?
tactile receptors, such as bristles, sensilla, spines, setae, and tubercles
What type of receptor responds to temperature changes?
Invertebrate and vertebrate sensory receptors (organs) have evolved in ways that relate to the ___________ in which they must function.
The _______-____ system for electrical sensing is in the head area of most fishes, some amphibians, and the platypus. This system can sense electrical currents in the surrounding water.
The vertebrate ear has two functional units: the ________ apparatus is concerned with hearing, and the __________ apparatus is concerned with posture and equilibrium.
auditory; vestibular
Pain receptors (___________) are bare sensory nerve endings that produce a painful or itching sensation.
The sense of smell is due to _________ neurons in the roof of the vertebrate nasal cavity.
Most ___________ have eyes capable of forming visual images.
Mechanism of ________ ________. Endoplasm (sol) flows into an advancing pseudopodium. At the tip (fountain zone) of the pseudopodium, endoplasm changes into ectoplasm (gel). At the opposite end (recruitment zone) of the ______, ectoplasm changes into endoplasm and begins flowing in the direction of movement.
Amoeboid Movement; amoeba
Larger flatworms (e.g., triclads and polyclads) have retained _______ ________ as the principal means of locomotion, and the largest animals to move using this method are the nemertines.
ciliary creeping
The dermis (cartilaginous fish) contains bone in the form of small placoid scales called _________.
denticles (L. denticulus, little teeth)
The ______ is the connective tissue meshwork of collagenous, reticular, and elastic fibers beneath the _________.
dermis (Gr. Derma, hide, skin); epidermis
Like the term implies, other body tissues enclose _____________. For example, the _____________ of sponges consist of mineral spicules and fibers of spongin that keep the body from collapsing.
endoskeletons; endoskeletons
This outer layer, the _________, rests on a basement membrane.
epidermis (Gr. Epi, upon + derm, skin)
Rigid ____________ also have locomotor functions because they provide sites for muscle attachment and counterforces for muscle movements.
Cilia are shorter and more numerous, whereas ________ are long and generally occur singly or in pairs.
The ___________ skeleton is a core of liquid surrounded by a tension-resistant sheath of longitudinal and/or circular muscles.
The __________ is the external covering of an animal. It protects the animal from mechanical and chemical injury and invasion by microorganisms.
integument (L. integumentum, cover)
A _____________ ________, or cleft, is the place where the nerve fiber and muscle fiber meet.
neuromuscular junction
For example, flatworms, some cnidarians, and the gastropod molluscs move by means of waves of activity in the muscular system that are applied to the substrate. This type of movement is called _____ __________.
pedal locomotion
Other protozoa, such as Paramecium, have a thick protein coat called a ________ outside the plasma membrane.
pellicle (L. pellicula, thin skin)
The plasma membrane of an amoeba has adhesive properties since the new ___________ attach to the substrate as they form by means of membrane adhesion proteins.
pseudopodia (sing., pseudopodium) (Gr. Pseudes, false + podion, little foot)
The skin of bony fishes (teleosts) contains ______ composed of dermal bone.
scales (Fr. escale, shell, husk)
____ is the vertebrate integument. It is the largest organ of the vertebrate body and grows with the animal.
The...system is the external covering of an animal. It primarily protects against mechanical injury and invasion by microorganisms.
Most invertebrates have an integument consisting of a single layer of ________ __________ cells called an epidermis. Specializations outside of this epithelial layer many be in the form of cuticles, shells, or teguments.
columnar epithelial
Skin structure varies considerably among __________. Some of these variable structures include scales, hairs, feathers, claws, nails, and baleen plates.
The skin of _______ ______ (lampreys and hagfishes) is thick.
jawless fishes
The skin of _____________ ______ (sharks) is multilayered and contains bone in the form of denticles.
cartilaginous fishes
The skin of ____ ______ (teleosts) contain scales.
bony fishes
The skin of __________ is stratified and contains mucous and serous glands plus pigmentation.
The skin of ________ is thick and modified into keratinized scales.
The skin of _____ is thin and soft and contains feathers.
_________ skin consists of several layers of a variety of cells.