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474 Cards in this Set

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The early steps in the evolution of living organisms from simple organic building, blocks is a process known as
biosynthesis.
______ suggests that stars and planets accumulated from contracting, accreting clouds of galactic gas, dust and debris.
Condensation Theory
How many million square kilometers does the ocean cover on earths surface?
361 million square kilometers
T/F The United States is a world leader in creating sustainable fisheries.
TRUE
Saturn’s largest moon is called...
Titan.
Erathosthenes was a member of which of the what profession?
Explorer.
The primary goal of the famous marine science expedition of 1872 aboard the HMS Challenger was to...
test the idea that life could not exist below about 1800 feet (550m).
T/F The Library of Alexandria, which was established in the third century BCE (before common era), was the locus for the study of marine science in the western hemisphere.
TRUE
The average ocean depth is ____ times greater than the average land elevation.
4 1/2
Between 1405 and 1433 who commanded the greatest fleet of ships to ply the world ocean on a voyage of peace and discovery that the world had ever known?
Admiral Zheng He of China
A nautical trade route for commerce between Europe and Asia made the arduous overland journey nearly obsolete. The development of this nautical route was necessitated by ______________, and finally realized by ______________________.
transference of power in Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. a marine science and navigational center established in Sagres, Portugal.
What was the composition of Earth’s early atmosphere?
Carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, with traces of ammonia and methane
Determining longitude needs...
careful observations of the positions of at least three stars AND a precise knowledge of time AND a set of mathematical tables to calculate position
Who discovered worldwide patterns of surface winds and ocean currents?
Matthew Maury
The ancestors of the main ethnic groups of the Oceania peoples who presently populate the islands of the central and southwest Pacific are referred to as ______.
Indonesian.
T/F More than 95% of all U.S. foreign trade passes through a U.S. port or harbor.
TRUE
Outgassing is responsible for:
The Atmosphere and Ocean
The Oceans contain ___% of the Earth’s surface water.
97.3%
Who stressed the interdependence of military and commercial control of seaborne commerce, and the ability of safe lines of transportation and communication to influence the outcomes of conflicts? His book had profound consequences for the development of the modern world.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
When does the dying phase of a massive star begin?
The star’s core is depleted of hydrogen and collapses in on itself
T/F The Big Bang, thought to be the beginnings of our Universe, occurred sometime around 13.7 Billion Years Ago.
TRUE
Which one of the following was a major factor in altering Earth’s preoxygen rich original atmosphere?
Volcanism
When the material of a spinning nebula collapses due to gravitational attraction, heat due to friction raises the temperature. When the temperature of this shrinking mass of increasingly dense gaseous material reaches about ___________ degrees Celsius, the process of nuclear fusion begins.
10,000,000 degrees
T/F The asthenosphere is Earth’s cool, rigid, outer layer which is 100-200 kilometers thick; whereas, the lithosphere is the hot, partially melted, slowly flowing layer of upper mantle below the asthenosphere.
FALSE
T/F The layer beneath the crust composes 68% of Earth’s mass and 83 % of its volume.
TRUE
What are main features of continental margins?
shelf slope and rise
T/F Paleomagnetic analysis of oceanic crust enables us to determine spreading rate and absolutely age date basalt samples
TRUE
What's a general characteristic of ocean basins?
Made of basaltic crust
Rocks at which location allowed James Hutton, author of the geologic theory of uniformitarianism, to confirm Earth's great age?
Siccar Point sedimentaries in Scotland
T/F Fracture (fault) zones usually represent ancient transform fault zones that have become inactive.
TRUE
Which tectonic interactions is most likely to cause the formation of an island arc?
convergent
Which of the following mechanisms is currently responsible for the generation of new lithospheric material?
Upwelling of magma at spreading centers
Basaltic volcanoes that rise from the ocean bottom and grow until they project above the ocean surface, then, after experiencing erosion, become submerged once again are called...
Guyots
Inge Lehmann, the chief of the Royal Danish Geodetic Institute, lived to be 105 years old. During her middle years she discovered...
that Earth's inner core is solid
Slow-flowing circuits of material within the mantle are known as both ______ and __________.
Convection currents AND plumes.
T/F Earthquake P-waves move from side to side, like a shaken rope.
FALSE
A transform fault is usually a fault in an oceanic fracture zone that...
accommodates differential motion caused by rigid plates moving over the surface of a sphere. AND is a location where two plates move horizontally past each other
How much of the Earth’s total mass is the crust?
0.4%
In classifying Earth's lithosphere, asthenosphere, crust, mantle and core, which one of the 5 is based solely on chemical rather than physical properties?
CRUST
The _____ marks the abrupt transition from continental shelf to continental slope.
Shelf break
Which one of the following is best associated with tectonic trenches?
Convergent plate boundary
Which is the country that was formed by the junction of a spreading ridge and a hot spot? It is commonly used as a natural ‘classroom’ for studying ocean ridge dynamics.
ICELAND
T/F The famous white cliffs at Dover, England are uplifted masses of fossilized radiolarians and diatoms.
FALSE
The ocean and some continental land masses are over 4 billion years old. How old are the oldest marine sediments?
About 180 million years old
What is the name for water suitable for drinking?
Potable water
Calcareous ooze is formed from shells of...
foraminifera AND coccolithopres
The most significant potential source of new energy from the ocean is:
Gas hydrates
Evaporites are _________ deposits that include salts that precipitate from water that evaporates from isolated arms of the ocean or form landlocked seas or lakes.
Hydrogenous
The marine acronym OTEC stands for...
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
About ___ of the world’s table salt is currently produced from seawater by evaporation. In 2005 the United States produced by evaporation about 3.9 million metric tons (4.4 million tons) of table salt with a value of about US$160 million.
1/3
The most widely used pharmaceutical derived from the ocean is ______ Many others are in use or under development for a variety of human and animal disorders.
Acyclovir
What would be most likely to happen to sand in a stream moving at 10 centimeters per second?
Erosion
Which has the least average sediment thickness?
Deep-ocean floor
Manganese nodules are the result of extremely slow rate chemical reactions that take place on the deep ocean floor. An average rate of growth for these nodules is roughly ______ millimeters per year.
5 x 10-6
As opposed to pelagic sediments neritic sediments are found ________. Most neritic sediments are _______.
near the coast AND Terrigenous
A very disruptive fishing technique that mistargets multiple species in a single trawl, and has one of the highest bykill to harvest ratios is ______. Until 1993, Taiwanese, Korean, and Japanese vessels deployed some 48.000 kilometers (30,000 miles) of these “walls of death” each night. Researchers at Duke University and St. Andrew’s University estimate that about 800 small whales are killed each day by this fishing technique.
drift nets
Which has the greatest average sediment thickness?
continental slope
What is the name for the zone where nations hold sovereignty over resources, economic activity, and environmental protection?
Exclusive Economic Zone
Sediments of the continental slope, continental rise, and the deep ocean floor that originate in the ocean are called...
pelagic sediments
The sediment layer lying on the base of the Sohm Abyssal Plain near Nova Scotia is notably thick for an ocean floor. Approximately how thick is this layer?
1,800 meters
Where would you expect to find the thickest sediments?
Atlantic abyssal plains
How many meters is Alvin, a deep-diving research submarine, capable of diving?
4,000/4,500 meters
T/F The epicenter of an earthquake is the location on the Earth's surface directly over the earthquake's focus.
TRUE
What is NOT a current economic benefit from ocean sediments?
Commercial collection of manganese nodules
T/F Neritic deposits almost always contain biogenous sediments.
TRUE
What does the Greek word "neritos" mean?
“Of the Coast”
Ships transport to market nearly ____ of the world's crude oil production.
1/2
Which type of sediment covers the greatest surface area of the Earth's ocean?
Biogenous
Which of the following has the least abundant sedimentary deposition?
The west coast of North America
Occasionally cosmogenous sediments includes translucent oblong particles of glass known as...
microtektites
T/F While manganese and cobalt are extracted from nodules; magnesium is “mined” from evaporated seawater.
TRUE
About how much of humanity’s nutritional protein needs are supplied by the ocean?
4%
JOIDES is an acronym that stands for...
Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling
ENSO is an acronym for the repeating meteorological and oceanographic event that can severely disrupt normal conditions. The ENSO-driven change in tropical Pacific surface trade winds causes...
build up of seawater in the western pacific, downwelling in the east, and generally warmer sea surface water temperatures overall.
A Northeasterly wind blows toward the
SOUTHWEST
Looking at the track of high-latitude ocean currents (close to the poles) on a typical Mercatur projection map would show these currents...
appearing over-proportioned in size.
The ozone layer is important to life on earth because it...
absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
T/F Cold water flows to higher latitudes where heat is transferred to it, then it flows back to low latitudes and releases its heat before the cycle repeats.
FALSE
which of the following are true concerning the atmosphere. 1. Cool air descends because it's more dense 2. Warm air rises because it's less dense 3. Rising and descending air masses form convection cells which contribute to atmospheric circulation patterns.
1,2 AND 3
Alternatives to fossil fuels include...
nuclear energy AND renewable resources (wind, soalr power, ocean currents, ATOC)
Surface currents...
form global patterns within longitudinal bands AND are driven by wind friction.
T/F Storm surges caused the greatest loss of life and property when Hiurricane Katrina struck the US Gulf Coast. The storm surge in Bay St. Louis was 10.4 (34 ft) high.
TRUE
The Hadley-Ferrel-Polar cell model of atmospheric circulation helps describe atmospheric and ocean current convergence and divergence of the northern and southern circulation gyres. Due to the shape of the Earth and the position of the continents on it, the convergence of the subtropical Hadley circulation cells at the ITCZ occurs closest to...
The geographical equator AND 4 degrees north latitude in summer
Many problems are associated with global warming. One problem is that the ocean is becoming more ____.
acidic
Extratropical cyclones rotate ___________ in northern hemisphere due to the coriolis deflection of winds approaching the center of a low-pressure area from great distances.
counterclockwise
coriolis deflection of moving air masses is due to....
the spherical shape of the roatating earth.
Who was the first person on record to have sailed solo around the world?
Capt. Joshua Slocum.
The pacific Equatorial undercurrent is known as the
cromwell current.
T/F Land breezes originate over the sea and move out to land and sea breezes originate on land and move out to sea.
FALSE.
Water vapor, as opposed to precipitation or condensation is....
a gaseous state of water AND capable of occupying 4% of atmospheric volume.
which one of the following western boundary currents carries the most volume?
The Gulf Stream.
What force constitutes the fundamental source of energy that generates wind movement and circulation?
Radiant energy of the sun.
T/F “El Nino” events are considered to be periods of normal oceanic and atmospheric conditions.
FALSE.
T/F Rather than making a continuous loop in each hemisphere, air rising from the equatorial region moves poleward and is gradually deflected eastward; that is, it turns to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This eastward deflection is caused by the Coriolis effect.
TRUE
The surface temperature of Earth fluctuates slowly overtime. The global temperature trend has been generally upward during the 18,000 years since the last glacial advance, but the rate of increase has recently accelerated. This rapid warming is probably the result of an enhanced ___________ _______, the trapping of heat by the atmosphere. This effect is necessary for life, without it Earth’s average atmospheric temperature would be about minus 18°C (0°F). However, humans have injected exhorbitant amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
greenhouse effect
We cannot expect science to solve our problems. Most of the decisions and necessary actions fall outside pure science in the areas of values, ethics, morality, and philosophy. The solution to environmental problems, if one exists, lies in...
Education.
T/F The slow circulation of water at great depth is driven by density differences rather than by wind energy.
TRUE
Seasonal variation of climate on Earth is due to...
tilt of Earth’s axis of rotation.
The term 'relative humidity' is so called because the same volume of air when brought to different temperatures will hold different amounts of gas (including water vapor, which is a gas). This relationship of temperature to water vapor carrying capacity occurs because...
dense cold air has less vapor carrying capacity than warm air
T/F Global warming is probably the result of an enhanced greenhouse effect, the trapping of heat by the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is an unwanted and unnecessary physical effect for life on Earth.
FALSE
Due to the combined effect of wind friction, Coriolis Effect, Ekman Transport, land mass, and the pressure gradient, ocean currents tend to...
flow along the periphery (outside) of ocean basins
T/F The thermocline is best developed in low latitude regions.
TRUE
Which of the following are parts of the six-cell global atmospheric circulation model?
Polar cells, Ferrel cells and Hadley cells
T/F Storms are variations in the earth's normal circulation patterns.
TRUE
A ______ is a pattern of wind circulation that changes with the season as the ITCZ (intertropical convergence zone) moves north and south. Areas subject to these seasonal winds (most pronounced in Asia and India) generally have wet summers and dry winters.
monsoon
T/F Large storms are either tropical cyclones or extratropical cyclones. Tropical cyclones (sometimes called hurricanes or typhoons) are the frontal storms familiar to winter residents of mid-latitude continents. Extratropical cyclones form in a single tropical air mass.
FALSE
T/F The “Ekman Spiral” describes how water below the surface flows toward the left of the wind direction in the southern hemisphere.
TRUE
At sea near 30 degrees latitudinarian areas of high atmospheric pressure and little surface wind. Thery are called the ___________. On land these latitudes are the locations of the world’s great deserts.
horse latitudes
T/F The lower atmosphere is a mixture of gases, mostly nitrogen (78.1%) and oxygen (20.9%).
TRUE
Surface Currents are wind driven movements of water at or near the ocean’s surface. Thermohaline currents are slow, deep, density driven currents that affect the vast bulk of seawater beneath the pycnocline.
TRUE
Sea and land breezes are a significant part of California’s coastal weather. A sea breeze can occur when the air over land masses near the coast...
rises in temperature AND falls in pressure
Oceanographers name currents and large bodies of water according to their relative vertical position in the water column. Which one of the following is the water mass that resides below 1,500 meters (5000 feet) to a depth of about 4,000 meters (13,000 feet)?
Deep water
T/F life on earth would be safer without the greenhouse effect.
FALSE
T/F Hurricanes spin counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere.
TRUE
T/F As Earth revolves around the Sun the constant tilt of its rotational axis causes the Southern Hemisphere to lean toward the sun in June but away from it in December. The Sun, therefore, appears higher in the sky in June but lower in December.
FALSE
Western boundary currents tend to be both...
warm AND fast AND deep
T/F The Gulf Stream is the western boundary current having the greatest flow rate.
TRUE
T/F Of the two large atmospheric circulation cells in each hemisphere, the Hadley cell extends from the equator to 45 degrees, while the Polar cell extends from 45 degrees to the pole.
FALSE
T/F The evaporation of water from the ocean’s surface helps to moderate global temperatures due to the water molecule’s low heat capacity.
FALSE
The North Pacific trade winds set ocean surface water (<400 meters deep) in motion. Towards which general direction does this current flow?
West
A ______ is huge rotating masses of low pressure air in which winds converge and ascend. A ________ is a much smaller funnel of fast spinning with severe thunderstorms.
CYCLONE and TORNADO
T/F The net motion of water down to about 1 kilometer (1,000meters), after allowance for the summed effects of Ekman spiral, is known as Ekman transport (or Ekman flow).
FALSE
Water of the oceans and water vapor in the atmosphere transfer great quantities of heat from the tropics to the poles. Atmospheric circulation accounts for ____ of the transfer, while ocean circulation accounts for ____.
2/3 and 1/3
The southward flowing current that intercepts water outflowing from the Mediterranean Sea and then flows past the west African coast is called...
the Canary Current
Looking from the North Pole, the Earth turns counterclockwise. If a projectile or an air mass heads northward from the equator, in which cardinal direction will it veer from its poleward path?
EAST
Which of the following is NOT a possible influence on global warming?
Ionizing radiation from waste produced at nuclear power plants.
The lower atmosphere is a nearly homogeneous mixture of gasses, the most plentiful is _______ at 78.1% followed by _____ at 20.9 %.
NITROGEN and OXYGEN
What evidence exists to support equatorial upwelling?
High biological productivity at the equator
One sverdrup equals _____ cubic meters/second
10 to the 6th power
What percentage of the ocean's water is affected by surface currents?
10%
What is true of western boundary currents?
Narrow, deep, and fast/Water is derived from mid latitudes/Rich in nutrients
During an El Nino year:
More evaporation occurs over the ocean causing high precipitation in dry areas
Which can be a standing wave?
Tsunami AND Tides
Which one of the following describes weather related alterations to predicted tidal cycles such as those associated with storm surge caused by tropical cyclones?
Meteorological Tides
T/F By application of the equilibrium theory, the seafloor does not influence tidal effects.
False
Tidal power is the only marine energy source that has been successfully exploited on a large scale. The first major tidal power station was opened in 1966 in...
France
T/F The term tsunami is a descriptive Japanese term combining “harbor” and “wave”. It also called seismic sea waves.
TRUE
Los Angeles, San Francisco and the entire coast of California experience what kind of tides?
Mixed Tides.
T/F Tides are periodic, short term changes in the height of the ocean surface at a particular places. The Sun makes the most important contribution to the tidal effect on Earth.
FALSE
Water particles in a deep water wave move...
in circular orbits.
Release primarily of chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere cause depletion of the ozone layer which in turn, allows for more UV to pass through the surface of the Earth. _________ is the place so far that has recorded the greatest decrease (about 50%) in this protective layer.
Antarctica
T/F Tsunami are always shallow water waves.
FALSE
Internal waves are thought to be generated by...
energy from wind waves or tides moving into deeper water.
Approximately how often do spring tides occur?
Twice a month
Winter beaches will...
become steeper AND be composed of coarser materials AND will erode... All of the ABOVE
Unlike other moving things, wind waves travel over great distances in virtually straight lines. This is physically possible because...
wind waves carry only energy, and energy has no mass, and is therefore not subject to the Coriolis deflection.
T/F In order to attain a fully developed sea for a specific wind velocity there must be sufficient duration and fetch.
TRUE
The ultimate height of a wind wave will depend on
the fetch AND the length of time the wind blows AND the velocity of the wind... All of the ABOVE
Most waves in the open ocean have an average height of
less that 3 meters.
Present day sea level is _____ than the average sea level over the past 2 million years.
higher
Theoretically, wavelength can be measured...
from crest to crest AND trough to trough.
Which of the following is a factor that limits the development of a fully developed sea?
Wind strength AND wind duration AND fetch... All of the ABOVE
_____ are structures that extend perpendicular from the beach into the water. They help counter erosion by trapping sand from the current. They accumulate sand on their up drift side, but erosion is worse on the downside, with is deprived of sand.
Groins
Shore is to coast as ______ is to range.
mountain
Long shore drift occurs in
the wave driven movement of sand along the exposed beach AND the current driven movement of sand in the surf zone just offshore.
Generating ozone in the stratosphere requires sunlight. Most ozone is made in the
equatorial latitudes.
A wave that is in water which is shallower than one twentieth of its wavelength is considered to be a
shallow water wave.
T/F The behavior of waves is influenced by the depth of water through which they are moving. Deep-water waves move through water shallower than half their wave lenght (L/2). Only capillary waves and wind waves can be in “deep” water.
FALSE
A lunar day on Earth is the time required for the Moon to pass an observer on Earth two times directly overhead. It is
24 hours 50 minutes long.
At a depth of water equal to or greater than one half the wavelength of a passing wave, the motion of the water particles forms
large circular obits.
Seismic sea waves are
shallow water waves.
T/F The time it takes for a wave to move a distance of one wavelength is known as the wave frequency. The number of waves passing a fixed point in a given amount of time is known as the wave period.
FALSE
The Outer Banks of North Carolina are an example of
A barrier island.
The process of erosion that dissolves a rock by chemical breakdown of its constituent materials is called
dissolution.
T/F A wave break is influenced by wavelength, bottom depth, bottom contour, bottom texture, wind conditions, and shore steepness.
TRUE
Ozone accumulates at the South Pole during which season?
Winter
Fault defined coasts, such as California’s Tomales Bay, the coast of Peru and Chile, and the Gulf of California tend to be relatively
straight coastlines.
Headlands _______ wave energy and bays ______ wave energy.
Concentrate and disperse
Surface tension of the water tends to limit the size of
capillary waves.
T/F Humans have interfered with natural coastal processes almond many parts of the U.S. coastline, sometimes leading to disastrous consequences.
FALSE
T/F The movement of coastal sediments driven by wave action is referred to as longshore drift.
TRUE
Which of the following is not considered an important classification group of ocean waves?
geostrophic gyres.
T/F There are numerous “Amphidromic Points” located throughout the global ocean.
TRUE
T/F The Steeper the beach slope the coarser the sediment particle size.
TRUE
What factors are responsible for eustatic sea level change?
Temperature of ocean water AND tectonic motions.
Moderately sized wind waves in the open ocean have a maximum wave height to length ratio of approximately ________ before they will break.
one to seven
T/F Scientists are concerned about the rate of global increase in temperature.
TRUE
Before an ocean wave starts to “feel the bottom” at L/2, water in deep water wave actually moves in a _____ as the wave energy proceeds through it.
circle
When talking about great waves such as tsunami, tides and large seiches, the open ocean water depth relative to the wavelength is less than L/2, therefore the waves are called ______ waves.
shallow water
Shallow water wave velocity is a function of...
water depth.
Stokes drift is a significant driving force in ocean surface currents. This is due to the fact that water velocity at the base of an orbital cell is...
slower than, parallel to, but in the opposite direction of water velocity at the top of the cell.
T/F Wave base for a deep water wave is defined as 1/2 the wavelength.
TRUE
The ____ _____ is that region of the littoral zone between the deepest breaking waves and the shore.
Surf zone
By their circulation patterns, which one of the following best describes estuaries that form where a rapidly flowing river enters the ocean in an area where the tidal range is low or moderate?
Salt-wedge estuaries.
Near shore, if the wave crests are two hundred feet apart, the wave will “feel” bottom when the depth is about...
100 feet.
The typical velocity of a tsunami is...
750 kilometers (470 miles) per hour.
T/F At the first and third quarter moons, the sun, earth, and moon, create the lowest high tides and the highest low tides, therefore the tidal range is minimized.
TRUE
Waves at the shore wills tart to break when the water depth is...
about four thirds the wave height.
Daily tidal fluctuations are caused by gravitational influences and the relative position between...
the Earth, The Sun and the Moon. All of the ABOVE.
Tsunami have the longest wavelength.
FALSE
The size of the surface waves is controlled by...
Wind speed, fetch, wind/air temp, seawater salinity, and Duration of the blowing wind.
Tidal waves are influenced by the Coriolis effect because a large volume of water moves with the waves. They move ________ around amphidromic points in the Northern Hemisphere, and ______ around the amphidromic points in the southern hemisphere.
counterclockwise and clockwise
A ______ is a steep tidal wave that moves rapidly upstream. It is generated by the action of the tide in a broad opening of a river mouth.
Tidal bore
T/F Alternatives to burning hydrocarbon fuels for energy can likely only be attained using nuclear energy.
FALSE
In reference to tidal datum, what does MLLW stand for?
Mean Lower Low Water.
T/F Tsunami move at speeds up to 750 kilometers (470 miles) per hour and are generally deep water waves.
FALSE
Waves travel in groups called...
Trains
_____ has the lowest overall energy level.
Florida
T/F Tides are always shallow water waves even though their crests pass directly over the deepest parts of the ocean.
TRUE
T/F Shallow water waves are found only near the continental margins in water less than 10 feet deep.
FALSE
Mobile, Alabama in the Gulf of Mexico experiences what type of tides?
Diurnal.
T/F Global warming is probably the result of an enhanced greenhouse effect, the trapping of heat by the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is an unwanted and unnecessary physical effect for life on Earth.
FALSE
T/T The reference level to which all tidal heights are ultimately compared is called the tidal datum, which is a measured and agreed upon height of sea level. On coasts with mixed tides, the zero tide level is the average level of the two daily low tides (mean lower low water or MLLW). On coasts with diurnal and semidiurnal tides, the zero tide level is the average level of all low tides (mean low water or MLW).
TRUE
Spring Tides occur when the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun are...
directly inline.
Waves tend to be parallel to the shore when they break due to the process of...
refraction.
Erosional coasts are _____ coasts in which the dominant processes are those that remove coastal material. Depositional coasts are usually ____ coasts that are in a steady state or growing larger due to sediment accumulation.
young AND old
T/F The orbital motion of water particles within a deep water wave extends to a depth of about half of the wave length.
TRUE.
Tidal waves are called __________ because they are never free of the forces that cause them.
Forced WAVES
T/F Breakwater, jetty, and groin construction can make beaches more vulnerable to erosion processes.
TRUE.
The position and proximity of the _____ is the biggest factor causing the tides.
MOON
T/F An estuary is a body of water partially surrounded by land where fresh water from a river mixes with ocean water. Estuaries are classified into two distinct types depending on their origins, 1) drowned river mouths and 2) tectonically formed estuaries.
FALSE
Salt water entering Chesapeake Bay moves toward the eastern shore because of
“Coriolis Effect”
T/F The node (or nodes) near the center of an ocean basin is called an amphidromic point or a no tide point in the ocean. The tidal crest rotates once around these points per tidal cycle. Tidal waves move clockwise around the amphidromic point in the Northern Hemisphere, and counter clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
FALSE
When waves approach the shore a series of changes take place. One change is that the...
wave crest forms a steep peak.
As wind waves move out of a storm area, the waves are...
sorted by velocity and form the swell.
Storm surf can generate erosive impact pressures as high as...
3.0 x 10^4 kg/square meter.
The restoring force for capillary waves is...
cohesion of water molecules.
T/F Life on Earth would be safer without the greenhouse effect.
FALSE.
T/F Wave cut platforms are a sign that an area is tectonically active and that uplift is an ongoing process.
TRUE.
T/F Spring tides occur when the Earth, Moon, and Sun form a right angle. Neap tides occur when the Earth, Moon, and Sun are inline with each other.
FALSE.
What is "residence time", in reference to ocean chemistry?
The amount of time an atom of an element spends in the ocean
What is the most abundant ion in seawater?
Chloride
The approximate pH of seawater is...
8
T/F About 36% of the gas dissolved in seawater is oxygen.
TRUE
What is the most abundant gas dissolved in seawater?
Nitrogen.
What is meant by “Conservative constituents”?
Constituents of seawater that occur in constant proportions or change very slowly over time. AND Constituents of seawater that have long residence times AND The most abundant constituents of seawater
All the following Ions can be found dissolved in seawater EXCEPT:
Carbon
If a chemist determines a sample of seawater has chlorinity of 18.9 ppt what is the salinitiy of the sample?
34.1 ppt
Of the following gases which has the greatest volume dissolved in the oceans?
Nitrogen
According to Oceanography, the average pH of seawater is most like the pH of which of the following liquids?
Bleach
Which of the following is NOT a possible product of the reaction between dissolved carbon dioxide and seawater?
Dissolved Oxygen Gas
T/F All pollutants are man-made?
FALSE
What source of pollution accounts for the largest percentage of TOTAL marine pollution?
shipping and accidental spills.
Which of the following statements are true concerning marine oil spills?
Volatile components evaporate into the air, heavy components form tar balls that sink and bacteria decompose tar balls (all of them)
Given equal volumes of each, which of the following would constitute the most dangerous pollutant?
used motor oil.
oceanography quotes scientist sylvia earle as saying “Sometimes the best thing to do is to do nothing at all” what is a part of this reasoning?
Bacteria often do a better job than human methods of cleaning up a spill.
describe the earth’s atmosphere:
Mostly nirtrogen with 20% oxygen and little water vapor.
circulation of the earths’ atmosphere is a result of which of the following?
uneven air temperature caused by vairations in solar heating.
which of the following are parts of the six cell global atmospheric circulation model?
Polar cells, ferrel cells and hadley cells.
T/F storms are variations in the earth’s normal circulation patterns.
TRUE
Coriolis deflection of moving air masses is due to which of the following?
The spherical shape of the rotating earth.
Which of the following are true concerning the atmosphere?
Cool air descends because it is more dense than warm air. Warm air rises because it is less dense than cold air. Rising and descending air masses form convection cells which contribute to atmospheric circulation patterns.
T/F Hurricanes spin counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere.
TRUE.
What percentage of ocean’s water is affected by surface currents?
10%
Surface currents...
Form global patters within longitudinal bands AND are driven by wind friction
which of the following are true of western boundary currents?
Narrow, deep, and fast AND water is derived from mid latitudes AND rich in nutrients
what evidence exists to support equatorial upwelling?
High biological productivity at the equator.
Ocean currents...
ALL transfer heat from tropical to polar regions, influence weather, distribute nutrients and are strongest at the poles.
During an El Nino year:
More evaporation occurs over the ocean causing high precipitation in dry areas.
The ozone layer is important to life on earth because:
It absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
T/F Scientists are concerned about the rate of global increases in temperature.
TRUE
T/F life on earth would be safer without the greenhouse effect.
FALSE
What is NOT a possible consequence of global warming, according to Oceanography?
The quantity of gases dissolved in seawater, including oxygen, will increase.
What is NOT a possible influence on global warming?
Ionizing radiation from waste produced at nuclear power plants.
T/F Wave base for a deep water wave is defined as 1/2 the wavelength
TRUE
T/F As a wave travels through an area of deep water, the motion of water molecules travel only up and down as the wave passes through.
FALSE
The size of surface waves is controlled by:
wind speed, fetch, wind/air temp, seawater salinity, duration of the blowing wind
Atmospheric circulation causes winds to blow across the United States from west to east, causing:
Waves to be bigger on the west coast due to the large fetch (pacific ocean)
T/F Shallow water waves are found only near continental margins in water less than 10 feet deep.
FALSE
"Wave Length" is:
The distance from the crest of one wave to the crest of the adjacent wave.
A tsunami can form by which of these events: landslides/volcanic eruptions/meteorite impacts/neap tides/earthquakes
All of them
Of the following, which is the best description of tides observed at an amphidromic point?
No tide at all
While visiting the Ganges delta in India, you observe a large mass of water moving upstream, from the ocean into the river. What phenomenon is occurring?
Flood current
T/F Identify the following statement as true or false: the equilibrium theory of tides accurately predicts tides on Earth.
FALSE
T/F Identify the following statement as true or false: the earth/moon system orbits around a point located inside the Earth.
TRUE
How long is a lunar day in comparison to a solar day?
The Lunar Day is Longer
Approximately how often do spring tides occur?
Twice per month
Which of the following terms describes a situation where successive high tides are of different heights?
Mixed
What advantage does the dynamic theory of tides have over the equilibrium theory?
The Dynamic theory takes fluid dynamics into account
What does "perihelion" mean?
The closest approach of the earth to the sun
Barrier Islands are
long, narrow islands AND can migrate when sea level changes AND are separated from mainland by a lagoon.
T/F Breakwater, jetty and groin construction can make beaches more vulnerable to erosion
TRUE
T/F Depositional coast are new coasts in which coastal material is being removed.
FALSE
A shore contains...
beaches
What factors are responsible for eustatic sea level change?
Temperature of ocean water AND tectonic motions
Salt Wedge Estuary
Forms where a rapidly flowing large river enters the ocean
Fringing Reef
Clings to the margin of a volcano
Deltas
most common on the low energy shores of enclosed seas
Wave cut platforms
smooth, nearly level area making the submerged limit of rapid marine erosion
Fjord
usually formed by tectonic forces and modified by glacial erosion
partially mixed estuary
Chesapeake bay is an example
barrier reef
separated from a volcanic cone by water
rip currents
caused by the escape of excess water that has piled up along a beach
longshore currents
wave action moving sediment along the surf zone of a coast
well mixed estuary
forms where a slowly flowing river enters the ocean in an area of high tidal turbulence
sea cliff
marks the shoreward limit of marine erosion on a coast
atolls
ring shaped island of coral reefs and coral debris enclosing a shallow lagoon
sea caves
cut into vertical rock wall along shore line and usually accessible at low tide
The early steps in the evolution of living organisms from simple organic building, blocks is a process known as
biosynthesis.
______ suggests that stars and planets accumulated from contracting, accreting clouds of galactic gas, dust and debris.
Condensation Theory
How many million square kilometers does the ocean cover on earths surface?
361 million square kilometers
T/F The United States is a world leader in creating sustainable fisheries.
TRUE
Saturn’s largest moon is called...
Titan.
Erathosthenes was a member of which of the what profession?
Explorer.
The primary goal of the famous marine science expedition of 1872 aboard the HMS Challenger was to...
test the idea that life could not exist below about 1800 feet (550m).
T/F The Library of Alexandria, which was established in the third century BCE (before common era), was the locus for the study of marine science in the western hemisphere.
TRUE
The average ocean depth is ____ times greater than the average land elevation.
4 1/2
Between 1405 and 1433 who commanded the greatest fleet of ships to ply the world ocean on a voyage of peace and discovery that the world had ever known?
Admiral Zheng He of China
A nautical trade route for commerce between Europe and Asia made the arduous overland journey nearly obsolete. The development of this nautical route was necessitated by ______________, and finally realized by ______________________.
transference of power in Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. a marine science and navigational center established in Sagres, Portugal.
What was the composition of Earth’s early atmosphere?
Carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, with traces of ammonia and methane
Determining longitude needs...
careful observations of the positions of at least three stars AND a precise knowledge of time AND a set of mathematical tables to calculate position
Who discovered worldwide patterns of surface winds and ocean currents?
Matthew Maury
The ancestors of the main ethnic groups of the Oceania peoples who presently populate the islands of the central and southwest Pacific are referred to as ______.
Indonesian.
T/F More than 95% of all U.S. foreign trade passes through a U.S. port or harbor.
TRUE
Outgassing is responsible for:
The Atmosphere and Ocean
The Oceans contain ___% of the Earth’s surface water.
97.3%
Who stressed the interdependence of military and commercial control of seaborne commerce, and the ability of safe lines of transportation and communication to influence the outcomes of conflicts? His book had profound consequences for the development of the modern world.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
When does the dying phase of a massive star begin?
The star’s core is depleted of hydrogen and collapses in on itself
T/F The Big Bang, thought to be the beginnings of our Universe, occurred sometime around 13.7 Billion Years Ago.
TRUE
Which one of the following was a major factor in altering Earth’s preoxygen rich original atmosphere?
Volcanism
When the material of a spinning nebula collapses due to gravitational attraction, heat due to friction raises the temperature. When the temperature of this shrinking mass of increasingly dense gaseous material reaches about ___________ degrees Celsius, the process of nuclear fusion begins.
10,000,000 degrees
T/F The asthenosphere is Earth’s cool, rigid, outer layer which is 100-200 kilometers thick; whereas, the lithosphere is the hot, partially melted, slowly flowing layer of upper mantle below the asthenosphere.
FALSE
T/F The layer beneath the crust composes 68% of Earth’s mass and 83 % of its volume.
TRUE
What are main features of continental margins?
shelf slope and rise
T/F Paleomagnetic analysis of oceanic crust enables us to determine spreading rate and absolutely age date basalt samples
TRUE
What's a general characteristic of ocean basins?
Made of basaltic crust
Rocks at which location allowed James Hutton, author of the geologic theory of uniformitarianism, to confirm Earth's great age?
Siccar Point sedimentaries in Scotland
T/F Fracture (fault) zones usually represent ancient transform fault zones that have become inactive.
TRUE
Which tectonic interactions is most likely to cause the formation of an island arc?
convergent
Which of the following mechanisms is currently responsible for the generation of new lithospheric material?
Upwelling of magma at spreading centers
Basaltic volcanoes that rise from the ocean bottom and grow until they project above the ocean surface, then, after experiencing erosion, become submerged once again are called _____.
Guyots
Inge Lehmann, the chief of the Royal Danish Geodetic Institute, lived to be 105 years old. During her middle years she discovered...
that Earth's inner core is solid
Slow-flowing circuits of material within the mantle are known as both ______ and __________.
Convection currents AND plumes.
T/F Earthquake P-waves move from side to side, like a shaken rope.
FALSE
A transform fault is usually a fault in an oceanic fracture zone that...
accommodates differential motion caused by rigid plates moving over the surface of a sphere. AND is a location where two plates move horizontally past each other
How much of the Earth’s total mass is the crust?
0.4%
In classifying Earth's lithosphere, asthenosphere, crust, mantle and core, which one of the 5 is based solely on chemical rather than physical properties?
CRUST
The _____ marks the abrupt transition from continental shelf to continental slope.
Shelf break
Which one of the following is best associated with tectonic trenches?
Convergent plate boundary
Which is the country that was formed by the junction of a spreading ridge and a hot spot? It is commonly used as a natural ‘classroom’ for studying ocean ridge dynamics.
ICELAND
T/F The famous white cliffs at Dover, England are uplifted masses of fossilized radiolarians and diatoms.
FALSE
The ocean and some continental land masses are over 4 billion years old. How old are the oldest marine sediments?
About 180 million years old
What is the name for water suitable for drinking?
Potable water
Calcareous ooze is formed from shells of...
foraminifera AND coccolithopres
The most significant potential source of new energy from the ocean is:
Gas hydrates
Evaporites are _________ deposits that include salts that precipitate from water that evaporates from isolated arms of the ocean or form landlocked seas or lakes.
Hydrogenous
The marine acronym OTEC stands for...
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
About ___ of the world’s table salt is currently produced from seawater by evaporation. In 2005 the United States produced by evaporation about 3.9 million metric tons (4.4 million tons) of table salt with a value of about US$160 million.
1/3
The most widely used pharmaceutical derived from the ocean is ______ Many others are in use or under development for a variety of human and animal disorders.
Acyclovir
What would be most likely to happen to sand in a stream moving at 10 centimeters per second?
Erosion
Which has the least average sediment thickness?
Deep-ocean floor
Manganese nodules are the result of extremely slow rate chemical reactions that take place on the deep ocean floor. An average rate of growth for these nodules is roughly ______ millimeters per year.
5 x 10-6
As opposed to pelagic sediments neritic sediments are found ________. Most neritic sediments are _______.
near the coast AND Terrigenous
A very disruptive fishing technique that mistargets multiple species in a single trawl, and has one of the highest bykill to harvest ratios is ______. Until 1993, Taiwanese, Korean, and Japanese vessels deployed some 48.000 kilometers (30,000 miles) of these “walls of death” each night. Researchers at Duke University and St. Andrew’s University estimate that about 800 small whales are killed each day by this fishing technique.
drift nets
Which has the greatest average sediment thickness?
continental slope
What is the name for the zone where nations hold sovereignty over resources, economic activity, and environmental protection?
Exclusive Economic Zone
Sediments of the continental slope, continental rise, and the deep ocean floor that originate in the ocean are called...
pelagic sediments
The sediment layer lying on the base of the Sohm Abyssal Plain near Nova Scotia is notably thick for an ocean floor. Approximately how thick is this layer?
1,800 meters
Where would you expect to find the thickest sediments?
Atlantic abyssal plains
How many meters is Alvin, a deep-diving research submarine, capable of diving?
4,000/4,500 meters
T/F The epicenter of an earthquake is the location on the Earth's surface directly over the earthquake's focus.
TRUE
What is NOT a current economic benefit from ocean sediments?
Commercial collection of manganese nodules
T/F Neritic deposits almost always contain biogenous sediments.
TRUE
What does the Greek word "neritos" mean?
“Of the Coast”
Ships transport to market nearly ____ of the world's crude oil production.
1/2
Which type of sediment covers the greatest surface area of the Earth's ocean?
Biogenous
Which of the following has the least abundant sedimentary deposition?
The west coast of North America
Occasionally cosmogenous sediments includes translucent oblong particles of glass known as...
microtektites
T/F While manganese and cobalt are extracted from nodules; magnesium is “mined” from evaporated seawater.
TRUE
About how much of humanity’s nutritional protein needs are supplied by the ocean?
4%
JOIDES is an acronym that stands for...
Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling
ENSO is an acronym for the repeating meteorological and oceanographic event that can severely disrupt normal conditions. The ENSO-driven change in tropical Pacific surface trade winds causes...
build up of seawater in the western pacific, downwelling in the east, and generally warmer sea surface water temperatures overall.
A Northeasterly wind blows toward the
SOUTHWEST
Looking at the track of high-latitude ocean currents (close to the poles) on a typical Mercatur projection map would show these currents...
appearing over-proportioned in size.
The ozone layer is important to life on earth because it...
absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
T/F Cold water flows to higher latitudes where heat is transferred to it, then it flows back to low latitudes and releases its heat before the cycle repeats.
FALSE
which of the following are true concerning the atmosphere. 1. Cool air descends because it's more dense 2. Warm air rises because it's less dense 3. Rising and descending air masses form convection cells which contribute to atmospheric circulation patterns.
1,2 AND 3
Alternatives to fossil fuels include...
nuclear energy AND renewable resources (wind, soalr power, ocean currents, ATOC)
Surface currents...
form global patterns within longitudinal bands AND are driven by wind friction
T/F Storm surges caused the greatest loss of life and property when Hiurricane Katrina struck the US Gulf Coast. The storm surge in Bay St. Louis was 10.4 (34 ft) high.
TRUE
The Hadley-Ferrel-Polar cell model of atmospheric circulation helps describe atmospheric and ocean current convergence and divergence of the northern and southern circulation gyres. Due to the shape of the Earth and the position of the continents on it, the convergence of the subtropical Hadley circulation cells at the ITCZ occurs closest to...
The geographical equator AND 4 degrees north latitude in summer
Many problems are associated with global warming. One problem is that the ocean is becoming more ____.
acidic
Extratropical cyclones rotate ___________ in northern hemisphere due to the coriolis deflection of winds approaching the center of a low-pressure area from great distances.
counterclockwise
coriolis deflection of moving air masses is due to....
the spherical shape of the roatating earth.
Who was the first person on record to have sailed solo around the world?
Capt. Joshua Slocum.
The pacific Equatorial undercurrent is known as the
cromwell current.
T/F Land breezes originate over the sea and move out to land and sea breezes originate on land and move out to sea.
FALSE.
Water vapor, as opposed to precipitation or condensation is....
a gaseous state of water AND capable of occupying 4% of atmospheric volume.
which one of the following western boundary currents carries the most volume?
The Gulf Stream.
What force constitutes the fundamental source of energy that generates wind movement and circulation?
Radiant energy of the sun.
T/F “El Nino” events are considered to be periods of normal oceanic and atmospheric conditions.
FALSE.
T/F Rather than making a continuous loop in each hemisphere, air rising from the equatorial region moves poleward and is gradually deflected eastward; that is, it turns to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This eastward deflection is caused by the Coriolis effect.
TRUE
The surface temperature of Earth fluctuates slowly overtime. The global temperature trend has been generally upward during the 18,000 years since the last glacial advance, but the rate of increase has recently accelerated. This rapid warming is probably the result of an enhanced ___________ _______, the trapping of heat by the atmosphere. This effect is necessary for life, without it Earth’s average atmospheric temperature would be about minus 18°C (0°F). However, humans have injected exhorbitant amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
greenhouse effect
We cannot expect science to solve our problems. Most of the decisions and necessary actions fall outside pure science in the areas of values, ethics, morality, and philosophy. The solution to environmental problems, if one exists, lies in...
Education.
T/F The slow circulation of water at great depth is driven by density differences rather than by wind energy.
TRUE
Seasonal variation of climate on Earth is due to...
tilt of Earth’s axis of rotation.
The term 'relative humidity' is so called because the same volume of air when brought to different temperatures will hold different amounts of gas (including water vapor, which is a gas). This relationship of temperature to water vapor carrying capacity occurs because...
dense cold air has less vapor carrying capacity than warm air
T/F Global warming is probably the result of an enhanced greenhouse effect, the trapping of heat by the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is an unwanted and unnecessary physical effect for life on Earth.
FALSE
Due to the combined effect of wind friction, Coriolis Effect, Ekman Transport, land mass, and the pressure gradient, ocean currents tend to...
flow along the periphery (outside) of ocean basins
T/F The thermocline is best developed in low latitude regions.
TRUE
Which of the following are parts of the six-cell global atmospheric circulation model?
Polar cells, Ferrel cells and Hadley cells
T/F Storms are variations in the earth's normal circulation patterns.
TRUE
A ______ is a pattern of wind circulation that changes with the season as the ITCZ (intertropical convergence zone) moves north and south. Areas subject to these seasonal winds (most pronounced in Asia and India) generally have wet summers and dry winters.
monsoon
T/F Large storms are either tropical cyclones or extratropical cyclones. Tropical cyclones (sometimes called hurricanes or typhoons) are the frontal storms familiar to winter residents of mid-latitude continents. Extratropical cyclones form in a single tropical air mass.
FALSE
T/F The “Ekman Spiral” describes how water below the surface flows toward the left of the wind direction in the southern hemisphere.
TRUE
At sea near 30 degrees latitudinarian areas of high atmospheric pressure and little surface wind. Thery are called the ___________. On land these latitudes are the locations of the world’s great deserts.
horse latitudes
T/F The lower atmosphere is a mixture of gases, mostly nitrogen (78.1%) and oxygen (20.9%).
TRUE
Surface Currents are wind driven movements of water at or near the ocean’s surface. Thermohaline currents are slow, deep, density driven currents that affect the vast bulk of seawater beneath the pycnocline.
TRUE
Sea and land breezes are a significant part of California’s coastal weather. A sea breeze can occur when the air over land masses near the coast...
rises in temperature AND falls in pressure
Oceanographers name currents and large bodies of water according to their relative vertical position in the water column. Which one of the following is the water mass that resides below 1,500 meters (5000 feet) to a depth of about 4,000 meters (13,000 feet)?
Deep water
T/F life on earth would be safer without the greenhouse effect.
FALSE
T/F Hurricanes spin counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere.
TRUE
T/F As Earth revolves around the Sun the constant tilt of its rotational axis causes the Southern Hemisphere to lean toward the sun in June but away from it in December. The Sun, therefore, appears higher in the sky in June but lower in December.
FALSE
Western boundary currents tend to be both...
warm AND fast AND deep
T/F The Gulf Stream is the western boundary current having the greatest flow rate.
TRUE
T/F Of the two large atmospheric circulation cells in each hemisphere, the Hadley cell extends from the equator to 45 degrees, while the Polar cell extends from 45 degrees to the pole.
FALSE
T/F The evaporation of water from the ocean’s surface helps to moderate global temperatures due to the water molecule’s low heat capacity.
FALSE
The North Pacific trade winds set ocean surface water (<400 meters deep) in motion. Towards which general direction does this current flow?
West
A ______ is huge rotating masses of low pressure air in which winds converge and ascend. A ________ is a much smaller funnel of fast spinning with severe thunderstorms.
CYCLONE and TORNADO
T/F The net motion of water down to about 1 kilometer (1,000meters), after allowance for the summed effects of Ekman spiral, is known as Ekman transport (or Ekman flow).
FALSE
Water of the oceans and water vapor in the atmosphere transfer great quantities of heat from the tropics to the poles. Atmospheric circulation accounts for ____ of the transfer, while ocean circulation accounts for ____.
2/3 and 1/3
The southward flowing current that intercepts water outflowing from the Mediterranean Sea and then flows past the west African coast is called...
the Canary Current
Looking from the North Pole, the Earth turns counterclockwise. If a projectile or an air mass heads northward from the equator, in which cardinal direction will it veer from its poleward path?
EAST
Which of the following is NOT a possible influence on global warming?
Ionizing radiation from waste produced at nuclear power plants.
The lower atmosphere is a nearly homogeneous mixture of gasses, the most plentiful is _______ at 78.1% followed by _____ at 20.9 %.
NITROGEN and OXYGEN
What evidence exists to support equatorial upwelling?
High biological productivity at the equator
One sverdrup equals _____ cubic meters/second
10 to the 6th power
What percentage of the ocean's water is affected by surface currents?
10%
What is true of western boundary currents?
Narrow, deep, and fast/Water is derived from mid latitudes/Rich in nutrients
During an El Nino year:
More evaporation occurs over the ocean causing high precipitation in dry areas
Which can be a standing wave?
Tsunami AND Tides
Which one of the following describes weather related alterations to predicted tidal cycles such as those associated with storm surge caused by tropical cyclones?
Meteorological Tides
T/F By application of the equilibrium theory, the seafloor does not influence tidal effects.
False
Tidal power is the only marine energy source that has been successfully exploited on a large scale. The first major tidal power station was opened in 1966 in...
France
T/F The term tsunami is a descriptive Japanese term combining “harbor” and “wave”. It also called seismic sea waves.
TRUE
Los Angeles, San Francisco and the entire coast of California experience what kind of tides?
Mixed Tides.
T/F Tides are periodic, short term changes in the height of the ocean surface at a particular places. The Sun makes the most important contribution to the tidal effect on Earth.
FALSE
Water particles in a deep water wave move...
in circular orbits.
Release primarily of chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere cause depletion of the ozone layer which in turn, allows for more UV to pass through the surface of the Earth. _________ is the place so far that has recorded the greatest decrease (about 50%) in this protective layer.
Antarctica
T/F Tsunami are always shallow water waves.
FALSE
Internal waves are thought to be generated by...
energy from wind waves or tides moving into deeper water.
Approximately how often do spring tides occur?
Twice a month
Winter beaches will...
become steeper AND be composed of coarser materials AND will erode... All of the ABOVE
Unlike other moving things, wind waves travel over great distances in virtually straight lines. This is physically possible because...
wind waves carry only energy, and energy has no mass, and is therefore not subject to the Coriolis deflection.
T/F In order to attain a fully developed sea for a specific wind velocity there must be sufficient duration and fetch.
TRUE
The ultimate height of a wind wave will depend on
the fetch AND the length of time the wind blows AND the velocity of the wind... All of the ABOVE
Most waves in the open ocean have an average height of
less that 3 meters.
Present day sea level is _____ than the average sea level over the past 2 million years.
higher
Theoretically, wavelength can be measured...
from crest to crest AND trough to trough.
Which of the following is a factor that limits the development of a fully developed sea?
Wind strength AND wind duration AND fetch... All of the ABOVE
_____ are structures that extend perpendicular from the beach into the water. They help counter erosion by trapping sand from the current. They accumulate sand on their up drift side, but erosion is worse on the downside, with is deprived of sand.
Groins
Shore is to coast as ______ is to range.
mountain
Long shore drift occurs in
the wave driven movement of sand along the exposed beach AND the current driven movement of sand in the surf zone just offshore.
Generating ozone in the stratosphere requires sunlight. Most ozone is made in the
equatorial latitudes.
A wave that is in water which is shallower than one twentieth of its wavelength is considered to be a
shallow water wave.
T/F The behavior of waves is influenced by the depth of water through which they are moving. Deep-water waves move through water shallower than half their wave lenght (L/2). Only capillary waves and wind waves can be in “deep” water.
FALSE
A lunar day on Earth is the time required for the Moon to pass an observer on Earth two times directly overhead. It is
24 hours 50 minutes long.
At a depth of water equal to or greater than one half the wavelength of a passing wave, the motion of the water particles forms
large circular obits.
Seismic sea waves are
shallow water waves.
T/F The time it takes for a wave to move a distance of one wavelength is known as the wave frequency. The number of waves passing a fixed point in a given amount of time is known as the wave period.
FALSE
The Outer Banks of North Carolina are an example of
A barrier island.
The process of erosion that dissolves a rock by chemical breakdown of its constituent materials is called
dissolution.
T/F A wave break is influenced by wavelength, bottom depth, bottom contour, bottom texture, wind conditions, and shore steepness.
TRUE
Ozone accumulates at the South Pole during which season?
Winter
Fault defined coasts, such as California’s Tomales Bay, the coast of Peru and Chile, and the Gulf of California tend to be relatively
straight coastlines.
Headlands _______ wave energy and bays ______ wave energy.
Concentrate and disperse
Surface tension of the water tends to limit the size of
capillary waves.
T/F Humans have interfered with natural coastal processes almond many parts of the U.S. coastline, sometimes leading to disastrous consequences.
FALSE
T/F The movement of coastal sediments driven by wave action is referred to as longshore drift.
TRUE
Which of the following is not considered an important classification group of ocean waves?
geostrophic gyres.
T/F There are numerous “Amphidromic Points” located throughout the global ocean.
TRUE
T/F The Steeper the beach slope the coarser the sediment particle size.
TRUE
What factors are responsible for eustatic sea level change?
Temperature of ocean water AND tectonic motions.
Moderately sized wind waves in the open ocean have a maximum wave height to length ratio of approximately ________ before they will break.
one to seven
T/F Scientists are concerned about the rate of global increase in temperature.
TRUE
Before an ocean wave starts to “feel the bottom” at L/2, water in deep water wave actually moves in a _____ as the wave energy proceeds through it.
circle
When talking about great waves such as tsunami, tides and large seiches, the open ocean water depth relative to the wavelength is less than L/2, therefore the waves are called ______ waves.
shallow water
Shallow water wave velocity is a function of...
water depth.
Stokes drift is a significant driving force in ocean surface currents. This is due to the fact that water velocity at the base of an orbital cell is...
slower than, parallel to, but in the opposite direction of water velocity at the top of the cell.
T/F Wave base for a deep water wave is defined as 1/2 the wavelength.
TRUE
The ____ _____ is that region of the littoral zone between the deepest breaking waves and the shore.
Surf zone
By their circulation patterns, which one of the following best describes estuaries that form where a rapidly flowing river enters the ocean in an area where the tidal range is low or moderate?
Salt-wedge estuaries.
Near shore, if the wave crests are two hundred feet apart, the wave will “feel” bottom when the depth is about...
100 feet.
The typical velocity of a tsunami is...
750 kilometers (470 miles) per hour.