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36 Cards in this Set

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what percent of the body weight is water?
50-70%
how much water per day is recommended for men & women?
9 cups for women, 13 cups for men
what is the difference between intracellular and extracellular fluid?
intracellular is within the cells, extracellular is outside the cells
how much is in intracellular and extracellular?
~25L as intracellular, ~17L as extracellular
what is osmosis?
water passes through some type of membrane to "even out" concentrations
hydration
don't rely on thirst mechanism, "being thirsty" is not an accurate indicator
dehydration
fluid conservation
athletes?
weigh before and after training session, consume 3 cups for every pound lost
difference between major & trace minerals?
major require greater than 100 mg/day, trace require less than 100 mg/day
bioavailability
amount absorbed and available
what is the typical intake of sodium?
4700 mg/day
what is the function & source of potassium?
can lower blood pressure, found in bananas
what is the function and source of fluoride?
helps prevent dental caries, cavities, found in toothpaste
what is the function & sources of phosphorus?
bone and tooth strength, found in dairy products, bakery products, meat, soft drinks, food additives
function & sources of magnesium?
enzyme reactions, potassium & calcium metabolism, proper nerve & cardiac functions, insulin release from the pancreas- sources are whole grains, vegetables, nuts, seeds
where does sulfur primarily come from?
protein
characteristics of iron?
found in very small amounts in every cell, hemoglobin in red blood cells transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
iron deficient anemia
most common form of anemia, decrease hemoglobin; decrease intake and stores, decrease RBC's and oxygen carrying capacity, highest risk in infants, vegans, runners, women, chronic blood loss
sources of iron
meat/seafood, whole grains, enriched bread, peas, beans
what is the RDA of zinc?
8 mg for adult female, 11 mg for adult male
iodide deficiency
thyroid gland enlarges (goiter), cretinism, stunting of fetal growth an mental development if mom has decreased intake
function of chromium
enhances insulin action
function of manganese
carb metabolism, enzyme cofactor, bone formation
function of copper
aids in iron metabolism
function of selenium
co-factor for antioxidant enzymes, works together with vitamin E, aids in cancer prevention
energy in
food we eat
energy out
basal metabolism, physical activity, thermic effect of food, thermogenesis
basal metabolism
amount of calories body uses when resting and awake in warm environment
things that can effect: height, weight, muscle, body temp., gender, age, hormones, nervous system activity, calorie intake, pregnancy, use of stimulants
thermogenesis
nonvoluntary physical activity
bmi
body mass index
obesity
excessive amount of body fat
juvenile onset obesity
develops in infancy or childhood, increased number of adipose cells, difficult to lose fat
adult onset obesity
develops in adulthood, fewer number of adipose cells and are larger
rapid weight loss is from what?
loss of water, muscle, glycogen
how do you lose a pound in a week?
1 lb. of body fat ~3500 kcals. eat ~500 kcals less per day
treatment for underweight
eat kcal and nutrient dense foods, encourage regular meals and snacks, increase portion size, strength training