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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are proteins made of?
amino acids
what is special about protein?
it has nitrogen
essential amino acids
9 amino acids that must come from the diet
nonessential amino acids
11 amino acids that the body can synthesize
complementary proteins
more common when trying to get all essential amino acids from plant sources. put two different incomplete proteins together: beans & rice, corn & beans, rice & peas
limiting amino acids
a food doesn't have enough of one or more essential amino acids. bottom line: you have a plant protein source, and it doesn't have all the essential aa's. the essential aa's lacking are called the limiting aa's and that's why you need complementary proteins.
animal protein sources
beef, poultry, milk, cheese, white bread (plant souce- flour)
where does most protein digestion & absorption occur?
in the small intestine & stomach
protein digesting enzyme in the stomach
RDA of protein
8g/kg of body weight
very little protein & kcals in diet "skin & bones"
very little protein, but only a moderate deficit in kcals
the abnormal and uncontrollable division of cells
spontaneous new tissue growth that serves no real purpose
spreading into blood or lymph, transported elsewhere, and continues to grow
how can our bodies protect us from cancer?
2 of the bodies defenses:enzyme systems & genes
things in diet that are good for us in terms of cancer?
fiber, antioxidants: fruits, veggies, whole grains, nuts & seeds
nonessential but helpful compounds from plants, may prevent disease
what is used to produce alcohol?
yeast fermentation of a carb
alcohol metabolism
depends on gender, race, size, food, etc. alcohol has priority in metabolism
where is alcohol metabolized?
majority in the liver
problems associated with binge drinking
accidents, injuries, std's, academic problems
disease commonly associated with alcohol in liver
family tendency for alcoholism
children of alcoholics 4x more likely
essential organic substances
fat soluble
not readily excreted (except k) a, d, e, k
water soluble
generally lost from the body (except vitamins b6 & b12)
function of vitamin a
eyesight (rods & cones), helps cells grow & mature, reproduction, antioxidant
function of vitamin e
antioxidant, helps vitamin a absorption, assists in iron metabolism, inhibits LDL oxidation, and maintains nervous & immune system
function of vitamin k
role in blood coagulation, helps organs bind calcium
characteristics of vitamin d
derived from cholesterol, can be made by our bodies with sun exposure
sources of vitamin e
plant oil, seeds & nuts, wheat germ, cereals (esp. if fortified or bran)
water soluble vitamins
b1-thiamin, b2-riboflavin, b3-niacin
sources of b1
enriched & whole grain bread, pork, lunch meats, cereal
sources of b2
milk, enriched grains, liver, oysters
b3 deficiency
only diet deficiency to become an epidemic in the US
folate function
dna, rbc synthesis
folate sources
fortified cereals, green leafy vegetables, orange juice
folate deficiency
megaloblastic anemia: pregnant women, alcoholics; neural tube defects: range of problems- spina bifida
b12 function
rbc formation, nerve function: maintain myelin sheaths
b12 sources
only animal products
rda for vitamin c
90 mg/day for males, 75 mg/day for females, +35 mg/day for smokers
functions of vitamin c
antioxidant, immune functions, iron absorption, synthesis of collagen
pantothenic acid deficiency
biotin function
coenzyme role: metabolism of carbs & fats
vitamin b6 function
coenzyme role- amino acid & glycogen metabolism, noncoenzyme role- steroid hormones