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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Proteins
organic compounds formed from chains of amino acids
amino acids
organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
essential amino acids
amno acids that can't be manufactured by the body
nonessential amino acids
amino acids manufactured by the body
amino acid pool
the assortment of amino acids available to the cell
denatured
a change in the shape of protein structures causeed by heat, light, acids, alcohol, or mechanical actions.
Proteases
protein enzymes
pepsinogen
the inactive form of pepsin
pepsin
a gastric protease
trypsin
the primary pancreatic protease
chymotrypsin
a pancreatic protease that hydrolized polypeptides into dipeptides
carboxypeptidase
a pancreatic protease that hydrolizes polypeptides and dipeptides into amino acids.
Aminopeptidase
an intestinal peptidase that releases free amino acids from the amino end of short-chin peptides
dipeptidase
an intestinal peptidase that completes the hydrolysis of proteins to amino acids
deamination
a process through which an amino acid group breaks off from an amino acid molecule, resulting in molecules of ammonia and keto acid
urea
the product of ammonia conversion produced during deamination
nitrogen-balance studies
measurement of the amount of nitrogen entering the body compared with the amount excreted
complete protein
proteins containing all 9 essential amino acids
high quality protein
a food containing the best balance and assortment of essential and nonessential amino acids for protein synthesis.
Incomplete protein
proteins lacking one or more of the essential amino proteins
limiting amino acid
the essential amino acid or amino acids that incomplete proteins lack
biologic value
a method to determine the quality of food protein by measuring the amount of nitrogen kept in the body after digestion, absorption, and excretion
amino acid score
a simple measure of an amino acid composition of a food as compared with a reference protein; based on the limiting amino acid
protein efficiency ratio
a method to determine the quality of food protein by comparing weight gain to protein intake
lactation
the production of breast milk
vegan
a food plan consisting of only plant foods
lacto-vegatarian
plant foods plus dairy products
ovo-lacto vegetarian
consisting only of plant foods, dairy products and eggs.