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49 Cards in this Set

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Recommended weight gains in pregnancy:
Underweight BMI<19.8
28-40
Normal BMI 19.8-26
25-35
Overweight BMI 26-29
15-25
Obese BMI >29
>15
total energy needs are estimated to be ______ for an uncomplicated 40 week pregnancy
55,000kcal
The total iron requirement for an uncomplicated 40 week pregnancy is _______
1000mg
Less than _____ of women have sufficient iron stoores to support the high requirement of pregnancy
50%
Prevalence of iron deficiency is increased among women who:
1)are members of minority
2)live in poverty
3)have fewer than 12 yrs education
4)have two or more children
Studies have demonstrated a link between iron deficiency anemia early in pregnancy and risk for _______.
premature birth
Maternal iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy is also associated with _____.
low birth weight
What are the 3 possible mechanisms by which iron deficiency anemia might cause preterm delivery?
1)chronic hypoxia initiating stress response
2)increased oxidative stress
3)infection due to impaired immune status
High blood levels of hemoglobin and other markers of iron status, such as ferritin, have also been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, low birth-weight, ______ and _____.
preeclampsia and gestational DM
The neural tube (precursor of the brain and spinal cord) forms _____ after fertilization of the ovum
20-28days
What are two examples of neural tube defects?
1)spina bifida
2)anencephaly
It is clear that development of NTDs can be modulated by diet. Currently it is believed that _____ may be important in the development of NTD
nutrient-gene interaction
This percentage of women who deliver a baby with a NTD have no prior history of NTD
95%
Orange juice contains how many micrograms of folic acid per cup?
109mcg = .109mg
Women of childbearing age should consume how much folic acid per day?
0.4mg
What other drugs can cause birth defects such as cardiovascular defects, oral clefts, UTI, including NTDs
trimethoprim, triamterene, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primodine
What nutrients are involved in methyl group metabolism?
folic acid, choline, and methionine
This nutrient appears to be an important mediator of neural tube closure
choline and folate
This nutrient appears to be important later in fetal development as a factor influencing hippocampal development and affecting memory in offsprin
choline and folate
Studies have shown that women who consume 4500+mcg of vitamin A per during early pregnancy have a 3.5fold increased risk for delivering a baby a _______
birth defect
Nutritional complications of FAS include protein-energy malnutrition )retards brain development), ______, ______, __________
zinc deficiency, folic acid deficiency, and increased oxidative stress
What two of the most common congenital abnormalities affecting male births are associated with paternal, not maternal expossure to pesticides or smoling?
cryptorchidism (pesticides)
hypospadias (smoking)-weak association with brain tumors and lymphoma
This is present in very high concentrations (____) in semen
vitamin C 400uM
Nutrients that have been identified as potentially important mediators of male fertility include?
folic acid, zinc, vitamin C
What are the four artificial sweeteners approved by FDA?
1)aspartame
2)saccharin
3)sucralose
4)acesulfame K
Individuals with phenylketonuria should be aware tha phenylalanine will be release from what artifical sweetener?
aspartame
What dietary fat substitutes are currently in use in the US?
1)simplesse
2)dairy-lo
3)litesse
4)olean
What is simpleese
microparticulated protein
What is dairy-Lo?
modified whey protein concentrate
What is Litesse?
polydextrose
What is Olean
non-caloric fatty acid esters of sucrose (OLESTRA)
This fat substitue is currently only found in savory snack foods, such as potato chips, corn chips, and crackrs
Olestra
How many americans aged 40 and over are blind and in addition how many are visually impaired
>1 million, 2.4million
what are the leading causes of vision impairment and blindness in the US?
diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, cataract, glaucoma
What is the primary cause of incurable blindness in the united states
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
What are the risk factors for AMD?
1)age >60
2)female gender
3)FH
4)race (caucasions)
5)smoking
6)high dietary intake of fat and cholesterol
What is the implicated pathology of AMD?
oxidative damage
What supplementation may implicated in potentially conferring protection against AMD?
antioxidants (vitamin E, C, and beta-carotene), zinc, copper, lutein (zeaxanthin-carotenoids that are selectively concentrated in the macula)
Most, but not all, epidemiologic stuides have reported an inverse associateion of ______ intake/blood levels and incidence of cataract
vitamin C
What are lens defenses against cataracts?
-antioxidants
-enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-glutathione peroxidase system)
-proteases
What is the concentration of Vitamin C in the lens?
>3mM
Blood levels of ____ and ____ were decreased 22% in the groups receiving the antioxidant cocktail
lutein and zeaxanthin
What were the results of the antioxidant +/- zinc AREDS study?
1)reduced risk for PROGRESSION to advanced AMD and loss of vision among high-risk participants (pre-existing characteristics of AMD) supplemented w/ either zinc or antioxidants AND zinc
2)little effect on progression in pts with less severe pre-existing conditions
3)no effect on development and/or progresson of lens opacities or visual acuity loss was observed in cataract arm
It is suggested that among the approximately 1.3 million older individuals who develop advanced AMD annually, more than _____ cases could be avoided thorugh appropriate supplementation
300,000 cases
This is presumed to be of primary improtance in protectin gthe brain from oxidant damage
vitamin E
This fraction of vitamin E may be more important than other forms of vitamin E for neuroprotection
tocotrienol