Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Major minerals are essential nutrients found in the human body in amounts larger than __ _____. Humans need more of these in the diet than trace minerals.
5 grams
_____ _______ are essential mineral nutrients found in the human body in amounts less than 5 grams.
Trace minerals
What are some characteristics of Calcium?
-Most abundant mineral in the human body
-Storage = our bones which can serve as a bank that can release calcium to the body fluids
-Bone is not inert- minerals of bones are in constant flux
The chief crystal of bone, formed from calcium and phosphorus.
A crystal of bones and teeth, formed when fluoride displaces the "hydroxy" portion of hydroxyapatite. This resists beings dissolved back in body fluid.
What are the major functions of Calcium (Ca)?
1. Building block of bone
2. Needed for muscle contractions and nerve transmission and therefore for the heartbeat
3. Helps maintain normal blood pressure
Blood Ca needs to stay constant to keep muscles and nerves working. The body keeps blood CA -
regulated by hormones sensitive to blood calcium concentration.
If you don't get enough calcium-
the body quietly increases the absorption of CA from the intestines and prevents its loss from kidneys concentrations.
What are the deficiencies (not rare) of calcium?
1. Inadequate growth in children.
2. Osteoporosis
A reduction of the bone mass of older persons in which the bones become porous and fragile.
The highest attainable bone density for an individual; developed during the first three decades of life.
Peak bone mass
List calcium sources.
Dairy products, fish with bones (i.e. sardines), dark green leafy vegetables, broccoli, tofu
What is the second most abundant mineral?
What is the function of phosphorus?
-Part of DNA
-Cell membranes
-Bones and teeth
-Part of energy metabolism
What are the best sources of phosphorus?
All animal products (meat, eggs, and dairy)
Phosphorus deficiency?
Dietary deficiency rarely occurs.
In _________, bones are the main storage area and can be tapped to maintain a constant blood level whenever dietary intake falls too low.
Magnesium (Mg)
What is the function of Magnesium (Mg)?
-Bone mineralization
-Muscle relaxation (works with Calcium- promotes contraction)
-Needed for the release and use of energy from energy-yielding nutrients
What are the sources of Magnesium (Mg)?
Nuts, legumes, whole grains, DGLV, seafood, dairy
Magnesium deficiency?
Unlikely but can occur with inadequate intake, vomiting, diarrhea, alcoholism, or protein malnutrition
What are the functions of Sodium (Na)?
-Maintain cells normal fluid balance
-Acid/base balance
-Essential for nerve impulse transmission
Where is sodium stored in?
Stored in bone. The rest is concentrated outside the cells helping to maintain fluid balance.
Sodium deficiency?
No- No known human diets lack sodium.
For sodium (Na), the tolerable upper limit is set at ______ mg a day. The DRI recommendation is approximately ______ mg a day.
2300, 1500.
What are examples of processed foods which contain sodium (Na)?
-Dry soup mixes (prepared)
-Smoked & cured meats
-Fast foods & TV dinners
-Canned soups
-Canned pasta
-Hot dogs
What are examples of LOW Sodium (Na) sources?
Fresh fruit and vegetables, eggs prepared without Na, grains cooked without Na, non processed meat (i.e. no hot dogs, deli slices, sausage), meat cut directly from animal, most dairy products.
The relationship between salt intakes and blood pressure is direct-
the more salt a person eats, the higher the blood pressure goes.
Communities around the world with high intakes of salt experience high rates of ____, ______ ______, and ____ _____.
hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and cerebral hemorrhage.
Salt sensitivity occurs more strongly in people with ____, ____, _____, _____ ____ ___, and also in ___________.
diabetes, HTN, kidney disease, niggas, and also in those whose parents had high blood pressure and anyone over 50.
What are causes of elevated blood pressure?
Stress, Na, lack of exercise, having too much body fat, poor diet, genetics.
75% of the salt we intake comes from ________ _____.
processed foods
What are the 3 negative health effects of too much salt intake?
1. Excretion of salt from our urine as soon as enough water is drunk.
2. May contribute to cardiovascular diseases
3. Hypertension, stroke, heart disease
The following are extremely high sources in sodium:
soy sauce, MSG, dry soup mixes, bouillon cubes, flavoring/seasoning packets (usually found in things like boxed rice dishes, ramen, noodle packages)
What is the function of Iron(Fe)?
Makes up part of hemoglobin and myoglobin.
Oxygen-carrying protein of the blood found in red blood cells.
Oxygen-holding protein in muscle cells.
Only a small amount of iron in our diet is needed-
The condition of having depleted iron stores, which, at the extreme, causes iron-deficiency anemia.
Iron deficiency
A form of anemia caused by a lack of iron and characterized by red blood cell shrinkage and color loss. Accompanying symptoms are weakness, apathy, headaches, pallor, intolerance to cold, and inability to pay attention.
Iron-deficiency anemia (RBC not formed properly. They are smaller and paler in color. Body does not have enough Fe to make enough hemoglobin to fill new blood cells, and anemia results.)
The iron-containing portion of the hemoglobin and myoglobin molecules.
What are the Iron (Fe) DRI recommended intake for men, women 18-50, and women 51+?
Men: 8 mg/day
Women (19-50 yr): 18 mg/day
Women (51+): 8 mg/day
In the US and the world, Fe deficiency is one of the more common deficiencies. What are the three causes?
1. Blood loss (surgery, menstrual losses)
2. Not getting enough food (malnutrition)
3. Consumption of the wrong foods (too much sugar and fat)
_____ of women in US are Fe deficient.
Menstruating women need ____ times as much as iron as men do.
What are good sources of Iron (Fe)?
All flesh foods, beans esp lentils, DGLV, all enriched grain products
Heme iron is found in what?
Meat, poultry, fish
Non-heme iron is found in what?
Plant sources