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58 Cards in this Set

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What happens when a food is refined?
You remove something from the food
The higher the fiber, the higher the complex cards.....
The fuller you will be.
Higher fiber=
Lower fats
What happens when a food is fortified?
You add something back to the food, but it is not in its original state.
Myth: Carbs make us fat.
Truth: Its what we add to it or how we cook it that determines how fat we get.
1/2 cup to 1 cup=
1 serving of carbs
If using regular bread, 1 sandwich =
2 servings of carbs
Name a significant animal source of carbs.
Lactose
Where can we find fiber?
It is found exclusively in plants and is indigestable, we don't really digest our fiber.
Statement:
Sugar-free products can have a laxative effect.
Soluble:
It becomes a gel. It will clog you up if you have diarhea. This type of fiber has a thickening effect.
Insoluble:
It doesn't mix; it detaches itself from the water. Comes from seeds, brans, stringy vegetables, celery and squash
What is the main product for regulation?
Soluble or insoluble?
Insoluble.
what type of combination can be successful for weight loss?
water and high fiber.
Statement:
With grains, fruits and vegetables, you will increase your carb intake, but they will be good carbs.
What do complex carbs provide?
Satiety
Statement:
Other than dental caries, no disease has been associated with amount of carb in take. There is no RDA
How much of your daily calorie intake should carbs be?
55 to 60% of total caloric intake.
What can the lack of fiber result in?
Colon cancer
What is the recommended amount of carbs needed to sustain life?
100 grams a day/ 400 calories worth
What happens if you don't use all of the carbs?
They are stored as fat. If you are storing for energy,glycogen stores (happens first)
In order for mucles to provide energy, what has to be present?
Carbs
What happens when we don't get enough carbs?
We starve our body and too many ketones are produced. Ketosis results
If a person has fruity breath, you might suspect that they are suffering from.....
Ketosis
Name some of the side effects of ketosis.
* suppressed appetite
* breakdown of fat tissue
* quick weight loss
What reaction is your body having when you go through ketosis?
Your body is in malfunction mode, your liver is overworking to get rid of the ketones.
Why is ketosis extremely dangerous for infants and children?
It can result in brain disfunction and brain damage.
Give a descrption of the Adkin's Diet
High protein, no carbs, hypoglycemia (related to low carbs)
What causes caries?
A fermentable carb: breads, starches, processed foods, esp. candy.
WHat is the main risk for caries?
Frequency and duration of exposure, and the form of sugar.
A coke contains what?
20 minutes of acid productivity per sip
4 grams of carbs =
1 teaspoon of sugar
Give an example of some of the natural sugars
Xylitol, zorbitol, manitol
What are polysaccharides?
Complex carbs; sugars containing over 12 carbon atoms
What is glycogen?
The carbohydrate form of energy in humans
What is lipogenisis?
The process of converting glucose to fats
What is hyperglycemia?
Elevated blood sugar
What is hypoglycemia?
Low blood sugar
What is phenylketonuria?
A genetic disorder characterized by the inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine
Carbs are made by all plants from what?
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
These type of sugars contribute to the palatability of a food because of their sweetness?
MOno and dissacharides
Name the monosaccharides of greatest significance in the foods and body metabolism are?
Glucose, fructose, and galactose
Which monosaccharide is the sweetest?
fructose
what is another name for glucose?
Dextrose or corn syrup. Naturally abundant in many fruits.
Glucose?
The principal product formed by the digestion of dissacharides and polysacharides. It provides energy for cells via the bloodstream.
Another name for fructose?
Levulose. Found naturally in honey anf fruits. A product of the digestion of sucrose
Galactose?
Product of lactose digestion (milk sugar). Legumes can also contain lactose
Sugar alcohols?
Also called polyols are formed from or coverted to sugar. Ex. sorbitol, xylitol or manitol may appear naturally in foods or be added by a manufacturer
What does sugar alcohol do?
Adds about the same amount of sweetness as glucose and the same amount of calories. Their advantage is that they do not contribute to tooth decay
Why aren't disaccharides important in human metabolism?
Because they contribute to body function only after they have been digested
What is the most common form of sucrose?
Granulated table sugar
What is the sugar found in milk?
Lactose
This sugar does not occur naturally, also called malt sugar?
Maltose. It is contained in bread making, beer brewing and some cereals
what is the most plentiful insoluble polysaccharide found in plants?
Cellulose
When carbs are eaten in excess what occurs?
Lipogenesis( process of converting glucose to fats) results in increased fat stores
What is the optimal level of dietary fiber that a person should have daily?
35 grams
Why hasn't a specific requirement for carbs been astablished yet?
Since amino acids and a portion of fats consumed can be converted to glucose
Sugar substitutes
They can reduce the caloric content and decrease cariogenicity of a product. Used in moderationm thse types of sugars can be benificial for many people especially those with diabetes