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26 Cards in this Set

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FACT: Healthy kidneys, continuously filter blood, maintain the body's fluid and electrolyte balance and acid-base balances and eliminate metabolic waste products. Secrete renin, erythropoietin, and convert vitamin D to its most active form, and they play an important role in maintaining healthy bone tissue.
FACT: Kidney stones develop when stone constituents become concentrated in the urine and form crystals.
Stone constituents that contain a combination of calcium oxalate and phosphate are called?
kidney stones
The severe pain that accompanies the movement of a kidney stone through the ureter to the bladder is called?
renal colic
FACT: Treatment of kidney stones include increasing fluid intake to dilute the urine, avoid excessive calcium and oxalate intakes, avoid vitamin C supplements and excessive salt intakes.
F: Nephrotic syndrome is a distinct cluster of symptoms caused by dysfunction of the glomerular capillaries. The symptoms include the loss of plasma proteins into the urine, low serum albumin, edema, and elevated blood lipids.
How is nephrotic syndrome caused?
Damage to the kidneys from diabetic neuropathy, infections, blood clots in the renal veins, and some drugs and toxins can precipitate the nephrotic syndrome.
What happens during acute renal failure?
Precipitous drop in glomerular filtration rate and urine output. Accumulation of nitrogen-containing metabolic waste products. Blood electrolyte levels rise. Blood pressure may rise dangerously high as fluids accumulate.
How is acute renal failure treated?
Medical nutrition therapy, drug therapy, and dialysis may be undertaken to restore fluid and electrolyte balances and to minimize blood concentrations of toxic waste products.
The removal of fluids and wastes from the blood by passing it through a dialyzer is called?
The removal of wastes and fluids from the body using the peritoneal membrane as a semipermeable membrane.
peritoneal dialysis
How is fluid restriction determined?
By monitoring each person's weight, blood pressure, urine output, and blood electrolyte levels.
In ___ the nephrons suddenly lose function and are unable to maintain homeostasis.
acute renal failure
___ is renal failure that is irreversible, dialysis or a kidney transplant is needed to sustain life.
chronic renal failure
___ is an accumulation of triglycerides in the liver resulting from many conditions, including exposure to excessive alcohol, excessive wt.gain, and diabetes mellitus.
fatty liver
In ___, damage to liver cells causes inflammation and enlargement of the liver
Most often the damage in hepatitis occurs as a consequence of ___.
viral infections
___ is an advanced form of liver disease in which scar tissue replaces liver cells that have permanently lost their function.
How does cirrhosis manifest?
Chronic alcohol abuse is the most common cause. Other causes: some infections, prolonged obstruction or diseases of the bile ducts, severe heart disease, severe reactions to medications, and exposure to toxic chemicals.
___ are blood vessels that have become twisted and distended.
___ is a type of edema characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity.
How do we treat esophageal varices?
High-energy intake while restricting sodium and fluids.
How do you treat esophageal varices?
Simple IV solutions to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance.
Portal hypertension is consequence of what disease?
___ is a state of unconsciousness that results from severe liver disease.
hepatic coma
___ is a syndrome that frequently accompanies many types of cancer and is characterized by anorexia, loss of lean body mass, depletion of serum proteins, and debilitation.
cancer cachexia syndrome