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37 Cards in this Set

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Is pain a subjective or objective experience?
Pain is a subjective experience.
Injury to the tissues produces __________ pain.
Nociceptor.
Injury to the neveres produces ___________ pain.
Neuropathic.
_____ pain is an intense pain occurring over a defined time, usually from injury to recovery.
Acute.
_______ pain persists longer than 6 months, can interfere with daily activites, and is associated with feelings of helplessness or hopelessness.
Chronic.
Name 7 nonpharmacological ways of pain management.
Acupuncture, Heat/cold packs, Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), Chiropractic manipulation, Massage, Relaxation therapy, Biofeedback therapy.
Free nerve endings strategically located throughout the body. These begin the pain transmission process.
Nociceptors.
What kind of pain do Ao fibers signal?
Sharp, well-defined pain.
What kind of pain do C fibers signal?
Dull, poorly localized pain.
What is subtance P responsible for?
It continues the pain message.
What do endogenous opioids include?
Endorphins, dynorphins, and enkephalins.
Medications used to relieve pain.
Analgesics.
Narcotic substances
Opioids that produce numbness or stuporlike symptoms.
Opiates.
Morphine and codeine. They are natural substances.
Opioid.
General term for any drug that produces the effects of opiates.
Mu and kappa receptors.
For pain management, the most important receptors.
Prototype drug for severe pain.
Morphine.
Five common combination analgesics.
Vicodin, Percocet, Percodan, Darvocet-N 50, Empirin with Codeine No. 2.
Most commonly used opioid antagonist.
Naloxone (Narcan).
Treatment for opioid dependence.
Methadone maintenance. It may continue for many months and years, until the client decides to go through total withdrawl.
What type of drug is used for mild to moderate pain?
NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).
Prototype NSAID.
Aspirin.
When the muscles of the head and neck become very tight because of stress, causing a steady lingering pain.
Tension headache.
The most painful headache, characterized by throbbing or pulsating pain, sometimes preceeded by an aura.
Migraine.
Auras.
Sensory cues that let the client know that a migraine attack is coming soon.
This occurs in response to many different stimuli, including physical injury, exposure to toxic chemicals, extreme heat, invading microorganisms, or death of cells.
Inflammation.
Name four diseases that would benefit from anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy.
Anaphylaxis, Peptic ulcers, Rheumatoid arthritis, Contact dermatitis.
The key chemical mediator of inflammation.
Histamine.
Life threatening allergic response that may result in shock and death.
Anaphylaxis.
H1 receptors.
Present in the vascular system, bronchial tree, and the digestive tract. Stimulation results in itching, pain, edema, vasodilation, bronchoconstrictions, and the characteristic symptoms of inflammation and allergy.
H2 receptors.
Present primarily in the stomach. Stimulation resuls in secretions of large amounts of hydrochloric acid.
Lipids found in all tissues that have potent physiological effects, in addition to promoting inflammation.
Prostaglandins.
NSAIDs block inflammation by inhibiting this.
Cyclooxygenase (COX).
A syndrome that includes symptoms such tinnitus, dizziness, headache, and excessive sweating.
Salicylism.
Rare, though serious disorder characterized by an acute increase in intracranial pressure and massive accumulations of lipids in the liver.
Reye's syndrome.
Syndrome characterized by excessive glucocorticoids.
Cushing's syndrome.
Name the types of drugs that cause a drug-induced fever.
Anti-infectives, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, Conventional antipsychotic drugs, Volatile anesthetics and depolarizing neuromuscular blockers, Immunomoldulators, Cytotoxic drugs, Neutropenic agents.