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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the steps in the bone healing process?
Fracture forms a hematoma, Granulation tissue occurs, Callus formation occurs, Ossification occurs (cast removed), Consolidation, Remodeling
What is an Open Fracture
Breaks through the skin
What is a closed fracture?
No breaks in the skin
What is a greenstick fracture?
Bone not broken completely
What is a compression fracture?
Crushed bone
What is a comminuted fracture?
Splintered bone in 2 or more pieces
What is a pathological fracture?
Fractures caused by weakened bone tissue (seen in osteoporosis)
What is clubfoot?
A bone deformity where the client walks on the toes with the heel and foot turned outward. Tx includes casts, splints or surgery.
What is scoliosis?
A bone deformity consisting of a lateral S-shaped curvature of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Tx is immobilization or surgery.
What is congenital hip dysplasia?
A bone deformity consisting of hip instability related to abnormal development. Tx includes abduction splints, casting or surgery.
What is osteoporosis?
A metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue that leads to increased bone fragility and pathological fractures. This is a slowly progressive non-inflammatory disorder.
What are sypmtoms of osteoporosis?
Bones that become porous and fracture easily. Mostly affects postmenopausal women and women with a family hx of this bone disease. Results in a measurable loss of height.
What is the tx of osteoporosis?
prevention, adequate calcium, and exercise
What is paget's diseas?
A skeletal bone disorder in which there is excessive bone reabsorption, followed by replacement of normal marrow by vascular, fibrous connective tissue and new bone that is larger, disorganized and weaker.
What are neoplastic disorders?
Disorders of abnormal tissue formation
List the different malignant bone tumors?
1. Osteosarcome - bone forming
2. Chondrosarcoma - cartilage forming
3. Fibrosarcoma - collagen forming
4. Myeloma
5. Rhabdomyosarcoma
6. Ewings Sarcoma
What are 4 common disorders of the muscoloskeletal system related to infection and inflammation?
1. Bursitis
2. Arthritis
3. Rheumatoid arthritis
4. Osteoarthritis
What is bursitis?
Inflammation fo the bursae that causes the joint to become painful. The pain restricts movement. Tx involves heat applications, immobilization or removal of fluid by aspiration with a needle and steroids.
What is arthritis?
Inflammation of the joints.
What is rheumatoid arthritis?
A disease process that affects the joints. It includes:
1. synovitis - inflammation of the synovial joints
2. Pannus formation - vascular granulation
3. Cartilage erosion
4. Fibrosis - scar tissue
5. Ankylosis - stiff joints
What are signs and symptoms of RA?
Signs are slow and insidious. The onset of the disease starts with inflammation in the fingers or wrists. The joints are red, swollen and stiff following rest, which eases with mild activity. The joint swelling is pain with subcutaneous nodules and when the joint becomes fixed, it is "burned out".
What is osteomyelitis?
A severe infection of the bone, bone marrow and surrounding tissue. Signs and symptoms include fever, night sweats, chills, restlessness, nausea and malaise, bone pain, swelling, warmth at infection site, increased WBC and ESR. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Tx includes IV antibiotics and debridement.
What is ESR?
Erythrocyte Sedimentation rate
What is a sprain?
An acute soft tissue injury consisting of ligaments in a twisting motion.
What is a strain?
An acute soft tissue injury consisting of excessive muscle stretching
What is a dislocation?
An acute soft tissue injury consisting of displacement of the joint
What is subluxation?
An acute soft tissue injury consisting of partial displacement of the joint.
This type of traction uses pins, screws, wires, or tongs.
Skeletal traction
This diet component is important to promote healing in musculoskeletal injuries.
Vitamins B&C
Universal prevalence of this disease is seen by age 80.
This disease has specific symptoms which include sensitivity to light and “butterfly” erythema.
This disease is caused by prolonged elevations of serum uric acid caused by problems with synthesizing purines or poor renal excretion of uric acid.
This is a pathophysiological change in osteoarthritis.
Cartilage affected
These two components of the CBC indicate blood loss.
Hemoglobin and Hematocrit
This procedure is used for direct visualization of a joint.
This lab value is analyzed to determine the effectiveness of allopurinol therapy.
Uric Acid
Pacemakers and hearing aids are contraindicated for this test.
This is the chief cause of mortality in clients with hip fractures within the first year of injury.
Complications from immobility
Restlessness, confusion, and petechiae in a client who has suffered a femur fracture may be indicative of this.
Fat emboli
This complication of trauma involves necrosis of muscle caused by inadequate capillary blood flow with complaints of unrelenting pain.
Compartment syndrome
The onset of fat emboli will typically occur within this many hours after surgery.
72 hours after surgery
This dietary measure is important when hemoglobin and hematocrit are low after surgery.
Increase intake of iron-rich foods
This is the most important nursing action to take after the reduction of a hip dislocation.
Evaluate neurovascular status
These two priority interventions should be initiated in the case of hypovolemic shock.
Fluids and trendelenberg position
This is a unique concern when children need to take steroids.
Affect on linear growth
This is the type of traction used with children before the repair of congenital hip dysplagia.
Bryants traction
This is the first clinical sign of Duchene’s muscular dystrophy.
Difficulty running
Reasons for absent bowel sounds include
Inflammation, infection and ischemia
Pain at the CVA means
McBurneys point provides assessment of what?
What is a sign of aortic aneurysm?
Visible pulsations
What is cullen's sign?
Discoloration around umbilicus representative of peritoneal hemorrhage?
What are the 5 P's of compartment syndrome?
What is the Ractive Protein (CRP) test used for?
Used to diagnose inflammatory diseases, infections and malignancy
What is the Rheumatoid Factor (RF) test used for?
Assess presence of auto-antibodies that are found in 80% of clients with RA.
What is the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate test used for?
Assesses inflammatory processes, rheumatoid arthritis, osteomyelitis and respiratory infections.
What is ecchymosis
What does progressive pain that is unrelieved by pain medications indicate?
Compartment syndrome
How do antigout medications work?
They decrease inflammation. They also reduce uric acid production and increase uric acid excretion to prevent or relieve gout or to manage hyperuricemia.
What is PVD?
Peripheral vasucal disease
What is open reduction?
the correction of bone alignment through a surgical incision
What is internal fixation?
the surgical immobilization of a fracture in alignment with the use of wires, screws, pins, plates, rods, or nails.
What is CPM
Continuous passive motion