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129 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hypothesis
An unproven statement that tentatively
explains the relationships between two or more variables (factors that change) change)”
Epidemiological studies
Looks for correlations between
diseases, physiological measures, life
span, etc. and foods consumed,
presence/absence of specific
nutrients in the diet, etc.
Correlation
The simultaneous increase,
decrease, or change in two variables
Positively correlated
Both variables increase
Negatively correlated
One variable
increases, the other decreases
The Experiment
A set of actions designed to test the validity of a hypothesis.
Experimental design
usually seeks to
limit the factors that influence the
outcome of the experiment so that
the results are specific to the
phenomena discussed in the
hypothesis. Experiments are replicated and peer reviewed.
Treatment
The manipulation or difference
between the “ experimental group group” and the
“control group”
Experimental group
Receives the treatment
Blind treatment/experiment
Subjects and
sometimes experimenters do not know
which individuals are members of the
experimental group or the control group
Control group
A group similar in all respects to
the experimental group except for the
treatment. Does not
receive the treatment.
Placebo
A “sham” treatment such as a pill of
sugar instead of an active medicine
Sample size
number of individuals in
each group
Matched pairs
between control group
and experimental group
Randomized assignment
to group
Causation
the act of producing an
effect
Causation vs. Correlation
Knowing an agent of change that brings about an effect (treatment in an experiment) vs.
Recognizing that change in two variables
occurs together (observation of patterns)
Calorie
Unit by which energy is measured
kilocalories (kcal)
(1000 calories = 1 kilocalorie = 1 “ calorie”)
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
The average daily amount of a nutrient
that will maintain a specific
biochemical or physiological function
in half the healthy people of a given
age and gender group.
Recommended Dietary
Allowance (RDA)
The average daily amount of a nutrient
considered adequate to meet the
known nutrient needs of practically all
healthy people; a goal for dietary
intake by individuals
Adequate Intake (AI)
The average daily amount of a nutrient
that appears sufficient to maintain a
specified criterion; a value used as a
guide for nutrient intake when an
RDA cannot be determined”
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
The maximum daily amount of a
nutrient that appears safe for most
healthy people and beyond which
there is an increased risk of adverse
health effects.
Nutrient Density
The amount of nutrients that a food
has per calorie in a serving. Considering how to ingest
enough nutrients without eating too many
calories
Moderation
Ingesting enough, but not too
much, of a food. Control intake of foods
that are rich in fat and sugar or do not
promote good health
Variety
Eating a wide selection of foods
within and among the major food groups.
Obtain necessary nutrients and trace
minerals
Adequacy
Sufficient energy, nutrients,
and fiber to be healthy
Balance
Achieving the proper
combination of foods/food groups.
Eating foods in proportion to each
other and your needs
Calorie Control
Eating the right amount
of calories to control weight given
your metabolism and activity
Fortified
Addition of nutrients to a
food that lacks or has small amount of the nutrient
Refined
Process by which course parts
of food are removed
Enriched
Addition of nutrients that
the food lost during processing
Whole-grain
Food made of the entire
grain (besides the husk).
Serving sizes
are usually
SMALLER than you think
they are!
Mouth
Entrance into the body
- Breaks food into smaller
pieces
- Taste (appetite)
Pharynx
Passage from
mouth to esophagus
Epiglottis
Blocks food
from entering the
trachea (going to lungs)
Esophagus
Passage
from pharynx to stomach
Upper esophageal sphincter
Controls
passage into
esophagus
Lower esophageal sphincter
Upper esophageal
sphincter: Controls
passage into
Controls
passage into
stomach. Prevents
stomach contents
from entering
esophagus.
Gastroesophageal Reflux
Happens with a weakened esophageal sphincter: acid stomach contents come back up esophagus
Stomach
Muscles in stomach grind food. Water and acid added to form slurry called "chyme"
Chyme
formed in stomach by water and acid
Small Intestine
duodenum, jejunum, ileum breaks up chyme
pyloric sphincter
controls passage of food from stomach to small intestines
Ileocical valve
controls passage of food from small intestine to large intestine
Peristalsis
Small intestine has two muscle layers that work together in peristalsis and segmentation
Circular (inside)
Longitudinal (outside) Peristalsis moves chyme forward
Segmentation
Breaks chyme up so that it mixes with digestive juices which brings nutrients into contact with intestinal lining for absorption
Colon/Large intestine
passes waste to rectum; some digestion via bacteria
Digestion
process of chemically breaking down food
Rectum
stores waste prior to excretion
anus
controls excretion of wate from body
enzyme
proteins that facilitate chemical reaction without being changed in the process (a catalyst)
Salivary glands
produce and secrete enzymes that break down carbs
Gastric juice in stomach
water, enzymes, and hydrochloric acid
Pancreatic juice
many different enzymes that break down carbs, proteins, and fats. sodium bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid
Liver
produces bile
Gallbladder
stores bile
bile
emulsifies fat
Absorption
Stomach - some absorption of water, alcohol, minerals, and drugs.
Small Intestine - nutrient absorption into blood and lymph
Simple Diffusion
water, nutrients
facilitated diffusion
water-soluble vitamins
active transport
glucose, amino acids
Liver
Receives blood from
GI tract,
Filters wastes and
digests toxins, stores and releases nutrients (glucose, fats, and amino acids), produces bile,
Hormone:
A chemical messenger that is
secreted into the bloodstream by a
gland and effects physiological
processes at site remote from the
gland
Insulin
Hormone produced by pancreas.
Released when blood sugar is HIGH.
Causes cell membranes to increase
rate of glucose transport into cells.
Glucagon
Hormone produced by
pancreas. Released when blood sugar
is LOW. Causes breakdown of liver
glycogen into glucose, which is then
released into the blood.
Appetite
A psychological desire to consume
food. Controlled by the brain.
Hunger
A physiological sensation that
prompts us to eat. Coordinated in the
brain.
Peptic Ulcers
Area of the GI tract that
has been eroded away by the
acidic gastric juices of the stomach
Diarrhea
Frequent passage of loose watery
stools
• Causes: infection, chronic disease,
bowel disorder, stress, food
intolerance, reaction to medicine
Constipation
Absence of bowel movements at
normal rate. Stools that are small,
hard, and difficult to pass
Causes: Disorder of nervous system;
change in diet, schedule, medication;
dehydration; inadequate fiber
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Symptoms: cramps, bloating, constipation or
diarrhea
Gas
Intestinal: Caused by digestion of food
by bacteria in large intestine. Can be
caused by ingestion of some food
(carb rich) and also by a change in
diet.
Belching: Typically from swallowing air
when eating. Eating too quickly,
carbonated beverages, ill-fitting
dentures, chewing gum
Carbohydrates
Hydrated carbons. Molecules that are made up of water
(hydrogen and oxygen) and carbon
Atom
The smallest components of an
element that have all of the
properties of an element
Element
A type of atom, has unique
properties (for ex. iron, oxygen)
Simple Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides:
and Disaccharides
Disaccharides
Maltose = glucose + glucose
• Sucrose = glucose + fructose
• Lactose = glucose + galactose
Monosaccharides:
• Glucose: Form of energy used in body
Fructose: From fruits and honey
Galactose: Part of lactose
Complex Carbohydrates
“ Polysaccharides”
Chains made of hundreds to
thousands of glucose molecules
• Glycogen - made in the body of
animals to store glucose
• Starch – digestable, from plants
• Fiber – undigestable, from plants
Glucose
The body's energy currency
Amylase
Facilitates the break down of
starch to small polysacchrides and
disacchrides; in saliva and pancreatic juices
Maltase
Facilitates the break down of
maltose; on wall of small intestine
Sucrase
Facilitates the break down of
sucrose; on wall of small intestine
Lactase
Facilitates the break down of
lactose; on wall of small intestine
gluconeogenesis
When the body runs out of glucose
and glycogen store, it creates its own
glucose!
ketoacidosis
Ketoacidosis alters body body’s ’s basic
functions and damages organs. blood is acidic.
Viscous fiber
soluble in water
Nonviscous fiber
nonsoluble in water
viscous fiber
Lowers risk of both heart disease and
diabetes; Lowers blood cholesterol
diverticulosis
poop in rectum go to diverticuli and get stuck and get inflamed
Health Problems and Carbs
– Lactose intolerance
– Diabetes
– Hypoglycemia
Lactose intolerance
Insufficient lactase production
causes an inability to digest lactose
found in dairy products
Symptoms include intestinal gas,
bloating, nausea, cramping, diarrhea
Diabetes
Inability to regulate blood glucose levels found in dairy products
Untreated diabetes can cause ketoacidosis ketoacidosis,
nerve damage, kidney damage, blindness,
and can be fatal
• Three types:
– Type 1 diabetes
– Type 2 diabetes
– Gestational diabetes
Hypoglycemia
Low blood sugar (glucose)
Fasting hypoglycemia results when
too much insulin is produced even
when the patient has not eaten
• Reactive hypoglycemia results when
too much insulin is produced after a
meal
• Causes shakiness, sweating, anxiety
Lipid
Made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen; do not dissolve in water; 3 types:
-Triglycerides
– Phospholipids
– Sterols
Triglycerides
Three fatty acid molecules, One glycerol molecule
Fatty Acid
are long chains of carbon atoms
surrounded by hydrogen atoms
Glycerol
3-carbon alcohol that is the backbone of a triglyceride
Saturation
refers to how many
hydrogen atoms surround each
carbon
Saturated fatty acids
have hydrogen atoms
surrounding every carbon in the chain.
Monounsaturated fatty acids
lack hydrogen
atoms in only one region.
•Polyunsaturated fatty acids
lack hydrogen
atoms in multiple locations.
Cis
hydrogens on same side of the
carbon chain
Trans
hydrogens on opposite sides of
the chain
Hydrogenation
The addition of hydrogen
atoms to unsaturated fatty acids.
Phospholipids
Glycerol backbone
• 2 fatty acids
• Phosphate
Are soluble in water
Are manufactured in our bodies so they
are not required in our diet
Sterols
Lipids containing multiple rings
of carbon atoms. – Are crucial components of cell
membranes and many hormones
– Are manufactured in our bodies and
therefore are not essential components
of our diet
Lipase
Enzyme that facilitates breakdown of
triglycerides. Triglycerides are broken into 2 fatty
acids and a monoglyceride monoglyceride.
Micelles
Molecules of bile surrounded by
monoglycerides and fatty acids. Brought to
intestinal cells where contents are
absorbed.
lipoproteins
clusters of lipid and
protein) transported this way
Chylomicron
A lipoprotein produced by cells lining
the small intestine.
VLDLs – very low-density lipoproteins
Made by the liver
• Composed of lipids from blood stream
and lipids made by the liver
• Leaves the liver for transportation to
other parts of the body
• Loses triglycerides to cells and
becomes LDL
LDLs – low-density lipoproteins
• Is VLDL minus triglycerides
• Delivers triglycerides, cholesterol,
and phospholipids to cells
• Cleared from the blood by liver
(special receptors on liver collect it)
• “Bad cholesterol cholesterol”
HDL - High-Density Lipoprotein
Made by the liver
• Carries cholesterol from the cells to
the liver for recycling and disposal
• “Good cholesterol cholesterol”
Essential Fatty Acids
Omega-3 fatty acid
• Found in vegetables, fish and fish oils
• Important for growth and development, esp. in
. the eyes and brain
• Prevention and treatment of heart disease
– Omega-6 fatty acid
• Found in vegetable and nut oils
eicosanoids:
biologically
active derivatives of the essential
fatty acids.
Eicosanoids regulate:
– Blood pressure
– Blood clotting
– Immune response to injury and infection
– Reduce inflammation
Visible fats
fats we knowlingly add to foods
invisible fats
fats unseen, hidden, or added during processing
Atherosclerosis
A type of artery disease characterized by
plaques (accumulations of lipid-containing
materials) on the inner walls of the arteries.
Proteins
large complex molecules
composed of amino acids.
Pepsin:
an enzyme that breaks down proteins
into short polypeptides and amino acids.
proteases
Pancreatic enzymes
Functions of Proteins
in the Body
Cell growth, repair, and maintenance
– Enzymes
– Hormones
– Fluid and electrolyte balance
– pH balance
– Antibodies to protect against disease
– Energy source
Incomplete protein
does not contain all essential amino acids. in vegies
Complete protein:
contain all 9 amino acids animal products
Mutual supplementation:
using 2 incomplete protein to make a complete
Complementary proteins
two protein
sources that together supply all 9 essential
amino acids.