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264 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bruit
blowing, swooshing sound heard through the stethescope over an area of abnormal blood flow
Goiter
increase in size of thyroid gland that occurs with hyperthyroidism
Lymphadenopathy
enlargement of the lymph nodes due to infection, allergy, or neoplasm
Marcrocephalic
abnormally large head
Microcephalic
abnormally small head
Normocephalic
round symmetric skull that is appropriately related to body size
Torticollis
head tilt due to shortening or spasm of one sternomastoid muscle
Accommodation
adaptation of the eye for near vision by increasing the curvature of the lens
Anisocoria
unequal pupil size`
Arcus senilis
gray-white arc or circle around the limbus of the iris that is common with aging
Argyll Robertson pupil
pupil does not react to light; does consist with accommodation
Astigmatism
refractive error of vision due to differences in curvature in refractive surfaces of the eye (cornea and lens)
A-V crossing
crossing paths of an artery and vein in the ocular fundus
Bitemporal hemianopsia
loss of both temporal visual fields
Blepharitis
inflammation of the glands and eyelash follicles along the margin of the eyelids
Cataract
opacity of the lens of the eye that develops slowly with aging and gradually obstructs vision
Chalazion
infection or retention cyst of a meibomian gland, showing as a beady nodule on the eyelid
Conjunctivitis
infection of the conjuctiva, "pinkeye"
Cotton-wool area
abnormal soft exudates visible as gray-white areas on the ocular fundus
Cup-disc ratio
ratio of the width of the physiologic cup to the width of the optic disc, normally 1/2 or less
Diopter
unit of strength of the lens settings on the opthalmoscope that changes focus on the eye structures
Diplopia
double vision
Drusen
benign doposits on the ocular fundus that show as round yellow dots and occur commonly with aging
Ectropion
lower eyelid loose and rolling outward
Exopthalmos
protruding eyeball
Fovea
area of keenest vision at the center of the macula on the ocular fundus
Glaucoma
a group of eye diseases characterized by increased intraoclular pressure
Hordeolum
(stye) red, painful pustule that is a localized infection of hair follicle at eyelid margin
Lid lag
the abnormal white rim of sclera visible between the upper eyelid and the iris when a person moves the eyes downward
Macula
round darder area of the ocular fundus that mediates vision only from the central visual field
Microaneurysm
abnormal finding fo round red dots on the ocular fundus that are localized dilatations of small vessels
Miosis
constricted pupils
Mydriasis
dilated pupils
Myopia
"nearsighted"; refractive error in which near vision is better than far vision
Nystagmus
involuntary, rapid, rhythmic movement of the eyeball
OD
oculus dexter, or right eye
Entropion
lower eyelid rolling inward
Optic atrophy
pallor of the optic disc due to partial or complete death of optic nerve
Optic disc
area of ocular fundus in which blood vessels exit and enter
OS
ocular sinister, or left eye
Papilledema
stasis of blood flow out of the ocular fundus; sign of increased intracranial pressure
Presbyopia
decrease in power of accomodation that occurs with aging
Pterygium
triangular opaque tissue on the nasal side of the conjunctiva that grows toward the center of the cornea
Ptosis
drooping of upper eyelid over the iris and possibly covering pupil
Red reflex
red glow that appears to fill the person's pupil when first visulized through the opthalmoscope
Strabismus
(squint, crossed eye) disparity of the eye axes
Xanthelasma
soft, raised yellow plaques occurring on the skin at the inner corners of the eye
Annulus
outer fibrous rim encircling the eardrum
Atresia
congenital absence or closure of ear canal
Cerumen
yellow waxy material that lubricates and protects the ear canal
Cochlea
inner ear structure containing the central hearing apparatus
Eustachian tube
connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx and allows passage of air
Helix
superior, posterior free rim of the pinna
Incus
"anvil," middle of the 3 ossicles of the middle ear
Malleus
"hammer," first of the 3 ossicles of the middle ear
Mastoid
bony prominence of the skull located just behind the ear
Organ of Corti
sensory organ of hearing
Otalgia
pain in the ear
Otitis externa
inflammation of the outer ear and ear canal
Otorrhea
discharge from the ear
Pars flaccida
small, slack, superior section of tympanic membrane
Pars tensa
thick, taut, central/inferior section of typmanic membrane
Pinna
auricle, or outer ear
Stapes
"stirrup," inner of the 3 ossicles of the middle ear
Tinnitus
ringing in the ears
Tympanic membrane
"eardrum," thin, translucent, oval membrane that stretches across the ear canal and separtes the middle ear from the outer ear
Umbo
knob of the malleus that shows through the tympanic membrane
Vertigo
a spinning, twirling sensation
Aphthous ulcers
"cranker sores" -- small, painful, round ulcers in the oral mucosa of unknown cause
Buccal
pertaining to the cheek
Candidiasis
(moniliasis) white, cheesy, curdlike patch on buccal mucosa due to superficial fungal infection
Caries
decay in the teeth
Crypts
indentations on surface of tonsils
Cheilitis
red, scaling, shallow, painful fissures at corners of mouth
Choanal atresia
closure of nasal cavity due to congenital septum between nasal cavity and pharynx
Epistaxis
nosebleed, usually from anterior septum
Epulis
nontender, fibrous nodule of the gum
Fordyce's granules
small, isolated, white or yellow papules on oral mucousa
Gingivitis
red swallen gum margins that bleed easily
Herpes simplex
"cold sores" -- clear vesicles with red base, which evolve into pustules, usually at lip-skin junction
Koplik's spots
small, blue-white spots with red halo over oral mucosa; early sign of measles
Leukoplakia
chalky white, thick raised patch on sides of tongue; precancerous
Malocclusion
upper or lower dental arches out of alignment
Papillae
rough bumpy elevation on dorsal surface of tongue
Parotid glands
pair of salivary glands in the cheeks in front of the ears
Pharyngitis
inflammation of the throat
Plaque
soft whitish debris on teeth
Polyp
smooth, pale gray nodules in the nasal cavity due to chronic allergic rhinitis
Rhinitis
red swollen inflammation of nasal mucosa
Thrush
oral candidiasis in the newborn
Turbinate
one of 3 bony projections into nasal cavity
Uvula
free projections hanging down from the middle of the soft palate
Chapter 13: Head and Neck, Including Regional Lymphatics
1-7
Chapter 14: Eyes
1-40
Chapter 15: Ears
1-22
Chapter 16: Nose, Mouth, and Throat
1-24
Abstract reasoning
Pondering a deeper meaning beyond the concrete and literal
Attention
Concentration, ability to focus on one specific thing
Consciousness
Being aware of one's own existence, feelings, and thoughts and being aware of the environment
Language
Using the voice to communicate one's thoughts and feelings
Memory
Ability to lay down and store experiences and perceptions for later recall
Mood
Prolonged display of a person's feelings
Orientation
Awareness of the objective world in relation to the self
Perceptions
Awareness of objects through any of the five senses
Thought content
What the person thinks -- specific ideas, beliefs, the use of words
Thought process
The way a person thinks, the logical train of thought
Chapter 7: Mental Status Assessment
1-10
Chapter 23: Neurologic System
1-36
Agnosis
Loss of ability to recognize importance of sensory impressions
Agraphia
Loss of ability to express thoughts in writing
Amnesia
Loss of memory
Anaglesia
Loss of pain sensation
Aphasia
Loss of power to expression by speech, writing, or signs, or of comprehesion of spoken or written language
Apraxia
Loss of ability to perform purposeful movements in the absence of sensory or motor damage

eg: inability to use objects correctly
Ataxia
Inability to perform coordinated movements
Athetosis
Bizarre, slow, twisting, writhing movement, resembling a snake or worm
Chorea
Sudden, rapid, jerky, purposeless movement involving limbs, trunk, or face
Clonus
Rapidly alternating involuntary contraction and relaxation of a muscle in response to sudden stretch
Coma
State of profound unconsciousness from which person cannot be aroused
Decerebrate rigidity
Arms stiffly extended, adducted, internally rotated; legs stiffly extended, plantar flexed
Decorticate rigidity
Arms adducted and flexed, wrists and fingers flexed; legs extended, internally rotated, plantar flexed
Dysarthria
Imperfect articulation of speech due to problems of muscular control resulting from central or peripheral nervous system damage
Dysphasia
Impairment in speech consisting of lack of coordination and inability to arrange words in their proper order
Extinction
Disapperance of conditoned response
Fasciculation
Rapid continuous twitching of resting muscle without movement of limb
Flaccidity
Loss of muscle tone, limp
Graphesthesia
Ability to "read" a number by having it traced on the skin
Hemiplegia
Loss of motor power (paralysis) on one side of the body, usually caused by a cerebral vaacular accident; paralysis occurs on the side opposite the lesion
Lower motor neuron
Motor neuron in the peripheral nervous system with its nerve fiber extending out to the muscle and only its cell body in the central nervous system
Myoclonus
Rapid sudden jerk of a muscle
Nuchal rigidity
Stiffness in cervical neck area
Nystagmus
Back-and-forth oscillation of the eyes
Opisthotonos
Prolonged arching of back, with head and heels bent backward, and meningeal irritation
Paralysis
Decreased or loss of motor function due to problem with motor nerve or muscle fiber
Paraplegia
Impairment or loss of motor and/or sensory function in the lower half of the body
Paresthesia
Abnormal sensation, i.e., burning, numbness, tingling, prickling, crawling skin sensaton
Point localization
Ability of the process to discriminate exactly where on the body the skin has been touched
Proprioception
Sensory information concerning body movements and position of the body in space
Spasticity
Continous resistance to streching by a muscle due to abnormally increased tension, with increased deep tendon reflexes
Stereognosis
Ability to recognize objects by feeling their forms, sizes, and weights while the eyes are closed
Tic
Repetitive twitching of the muscle group at inappropriate tiems, e.g., wink, grimace
Tremor
Involuntary contraction of opposing muscle groups resulting in rhythmic movement of one or more joints
Two-point descrimination
Ability to distinguish the separation of two simultaneous pin pricks on the skin
Upper motor neuron
Nerve located entirely within the central nervous system
Alveoli
Functional units of the lung; the thin-walled chambers surrounded
by networks of capillaries that are the site of respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen
Angle of Louis
Manubriosternal angle, the articulation of the manubrium and body of the sternum, continuous with the second rib
Apnea
Cessation of breathing
Asthma
An abnormal respiratory condition associated with allergic hypersensitivity to certain inhaled allergens, characterized by bronchospasm, wheezing, and dyspnea
Atelectasis
An abnormal respiratory condition characterized by collapsed, shrunken, deflated section of
alveoli
Bradypnea
Slow breathing, <10 breaths per minutes, regular rate
Bronchiole
One of the smaller respiratory passageways into which the segmental bronchi divide
Bronchitis
Inflammation of the bronchi with partial obstruction of bronchi due to excessive mucus secretion
Bronchophony
The spoken voice sound heard through the stethoscope, which sounds soft, muffled, and indistinct over normal lung
Bronchovesicular
The normal breath sound heard over major bronchi, characterized by moderate pitch and an equal duration of inspiration and expiration
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
A functional category of abnormal respiratory conditions characterized by airflow obstruction, e.g., emphysema, chronic bronchitis
Cilia
Millions of hairlike cells lining the tracheobronchial tree
Consolidation
The solidification of portions of lung tissue as it fills up with infectious exudates, as in pneumonia
Crackles
(rales) abnormal, discontinuous, adventitious lung sounds heard on inspiration
Crepitus
Coarse crackling sensation palpable over the skin when air abnormally escapes from the lung and enters the subcutaneous tissue
Dead space
Passageways that transport air but are not available for gaseous exchange, e.g., trachea and bronchi
Dyspnea
Difficult, labored breathing
Egophony
The voice sound of “eeeee” heard through the stethoscope
Emphysema
The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by enlargement of alveoli distal to terminal bronchioles
Fissure
The narrow crack dividing the lobes of the lungs
Fremitus
A palpable vibration from the spoken voice felt over the chest wall
Friction rub
A coarse, grating, adventitious lung sound heard when the pleurae are inflamed
Hypercapnia
(hypercarbia) increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood
Hyperventilation
Increased rate and depth of breathing
Hypoxemia
Decreased level of oxygen in the blood
Intercostal space
Space between the ribs
Kussmaul’s respiration
A type of hyperventilation that occurs with diabetic ketoacidosis
Orthopnea
Ability to breathe easily only in an upright position
Paroxysmal nocturnal
dyspnea
Sudden awakening from sleeping with shortness of breath
Percussion
Striking over the chest wall with short sharp blows of the fingers in order to determine the size and density of the underlying organ
Pleural effusion
Abnormal fluid between the layers of the pleura
Rhonchi
Low-pitched, musical, snoring, adventitious lung sound caused by airflow obstruction from secretions
Tachypnea
Rapid shallow breathing, >24 breaths per minute
Vesicular
The soft, low-pitched, normal breath sounds heard over peripheral lung fields
Vital capacity
The amount of air, following maximal inspiration, that can be exhaled
Wheeze
High-pitched, musical, squeaking adventitious lung sound
Whispered pectoriloquy
A whispered phrase heard through the stethoscope that sounds faint and inaudible over normal lung tissue
Xiphoid process
Sword-shaped lower tip of the sternum
Angina pectoris
Acute chest pain that occurs when myocardial demand exceeds its oxygen supply
Aortic regurgitation
(aortic insufficiency) incompetent aortic valve that allows backward flow of blood into left ventricle during diastole
Aortic stenosis
Calcification of aortic valve cusps that restricts forward flow of blood during systole
Aortic valve
The left semilunar valve separating the left ventricle and the aorta
Apex of the heart
Tip of the heart pointing down toward the 5th left intercostals space
Apical impulse
(point of maximal impulse, PMI) pulsation created as left ventricle rotates against the chest wall during systole, normally at the 5th left intercostals space in the midclavicular line
Base of the heart
Broader area of heart’s outline located at the 3rd right and left intercostals space
Bell (of the stethoscope)
Cup-shaped endpiece used for soft, low-pitched heart sounds
Bradycardia
Slow heart rate, <50 beats per minute in the adult
Clubbing
Bulbous enlargement of distal phalanges of fingers and toes that occurs with chronic cyanotic heart and lung conditions
Coarctation of aorta
Severe narrowing of the descending aorta, a congenital heart defect
Cor pulmonale
Right ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure due to pulmonary hypertension
Cyanosis
Dusky blue mottling of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive amount of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
Diaphragm (of the stethoscope)
Flat endpiece of the stethoscope used for hearing relatively high-pitched heart sounds
Diastole
The heart’s filling phase
Dyspnea
Difficult, labored breathing
Edema
Swelling of legs or dependent body part due to increased interstitial fluid
Erb’s point
Traditional auscultatory area in the 3rd left intercostals space
First heart sound (S1)
Occurs with closure of the atrioventricular (AV) valves signaling the beginning of systole
Fourth heart sound (S4)
(S4 gallop; atrial gallop) very soft, low-pitched, ventricular filling sound that occurs in late diastole
Gallop rhythm
The addition of a 3rd or a 4th heart sound makes the rhythm sound like the cadence of a galloping horse
Inching
Technique of moving the stethoscope incrementally across the precordium through the auscultatory areas while listening to the heart sounds
Bell (of the stethoscope)
Cup-shaped endpiece used for soft, low-pitched heart sounds
Bradycardia
Slow heart rate, <50 beats per minute in the adult
Clubbing
Bulbous enlargement of distal phalanges of fingers and toes that occurs with chronic cyanotic heart and lung conditions
Coarctation of aorta
Severe narrowing of the descending aorta, a congenital heart defect
Cor pulmonale
Right ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure due to pulmonary hypertension
Cyanosis
Dusky blue mottling of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive amount of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
Diaphragm (of the stethoscope)
Flat endpiece of the stethoscope used for hearing relatively high-pitched heart sounds
Diastole
The heart’s filling phase
Dyspnea
Difficult, labored breathing
Edema
Swelling of legs or dependent body part due to increased interstitial fluid
Erb’s point
Traditional auscultatory area in the 3rd left intercostals space
First heart sound (S1)
Occurs with closure of the atrioventricular (AV) valves signaling the beginning of systole
Fourth heart sound (S4)
(S4 gallop; atrial gallop) very soft, low-pitched, ventricular filling sound that occurs in late diastole
Gallop rhythm
The addition of a 3rd or a 4th heart sound makes the rhythm sound like the cadence of a galloping horse
Inching
Technique of moving the stethoscope incrementally across the precordium through the auscultatory areas while listening to the heart sounds
LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy)
Increase in thickness of myocardial wall that occurs when the heart pumps against chronic outflow obstruction, e.g., aortic stenosis
MCL (midclavicular line)
Imaginary vertical line bisecting the middle of the clavicle in each hemithorax
Mitral regurgitation
(mitral insufficiency) incompetent mitral valve allows regurgitation of blood back into left atrium during systole
Mitral stenosis
Calcified mitral valve impedes forward flow of blood into left ventricle during diastole
Mitral valve
Left AV valve separating the left atria and ventricle
Palpitation
Uncomfortable awareness of rapid or irregular heart rate
Paradoxical splitting
Opposite of a normal split S2 so that the split is heard in expiration, and in inspiration the sounds fuse to one sound
Pericardial friction rub
High-pitched scratchy extracardiac sound heard when the precordium is inflamed
Physiologic splitting
Normal variation in S2 heard as two separate components during inspiration
Precordium
Area of the chest wall overlying the heart and great vessels
Pulmonic regurgitation
(pulmonic insufficiency) backflow of blood through incompetent pulmonic valve into the right ventricle
Pulmonic stenosis
Calcification of pulmonic valve that restricts forward flow of blood during systole
Pulmonic valve
Right semilunar valve separating the right ventricle and pulmonary artery
Second heart sound (S2)
Occurs with closure of the semilunar valves, aortic and pulmonic, and signals the end of systole
Summation gallop
Abnormal mid-diastolic heart sound heard when both the pathologic S3 and S4 are present
Syncope
Temporary loss of consciousness due to decreased cerebral blood
flow (fainting), caused by ventricular asystole, pronounced bradycardia, or ventricular fibrillation
Systole
The heart’s pumping phase
Tachycardia
Rapid heart rate, > 100 beats per minute in the adult
Third heart sound (S3)
Soft, low-pitched, ventricular filling sound that occurs in early diastole (S3 gallop) and may be an early sign of heart failure
Thrill
Palpable vibration on the chest wall accompanying severe heart murmur
Tricuspid valve
Right AV valve separating the right atria and ventricle
Diastole
The heart’s filling phase
Allen test
Determining the patency of the radial and ulnar arteries by compressing one artery site and observing return of skin color as evidence of patency of the
other artery
Aneurysm
Defect or sac formed by dilation in artery wall due to atherosclerosis, trauma, or congenital defect
Arrhythmia
Variation from the heart’s normal rhythm
Arteriosclerosis
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls
Atherosclerosis
Plaques of fatty deposits formed in the inlaye (intima) of the arteries
Bradycardia
Slow heart rate, <50 beats per minute in the adult
Bruit
Blowing, swooshing sound heard through a stethoscope when an artery is partially occluded
Cyanosis
Dusky blue mottling of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive amount of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
Homan’s sign
Calf pain that occurs when the foot is sharply dorsiflexed (pushed up, toward the knee); may occur with deep vein thrombosis, phlebitis, Achilles tendonitis, or muscle injury
Ischemia
Deficiency of arterial blood to a body part, due to constriction or obstruction of a blood vessel
Lymphedema
Swelling of extremity due to obstructed lymph channel, nonpitting
Lymph nodes
Small oval clumps of lymphatic tissue located at grouped intervals along lymphatic vessels
Pitting edema
Indention left after examiner depresses the skin over swollen edematous tissue
Profile sign
Viewing the finger from the side in order to detect early clubbing
Pulse
Pressure wave created by each heartbeat, palpable at body sites where the artery lies close to the skin and over a bone
Pulsus alternans
Regular rhythm, but force of pulse varies with alternating beats of large and small amplitude
Pulsus bigeminus
Irregular rhythm, every other beat is premature; premature beats have weakened amplitude
Pulsus paradoxus
Beats have weaker amplitude with respiratory inspiration, stronger
with expiration
Systole
The heart’s pumping phase
Tachycardia
Rapid heart rate, >100 beats per minute in the adult
Thrombophlebitis
Inflammation of the vein associated with thrombus formation
Varicose vein
Dilated tortuous veins with incompetent valves
Ulcer
Open skin lesion extending into dermis with sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tissue