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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Japan
•Japan is an island bordered by the sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean.
•Population of over 126 million is mainly urban based throughout the land.
Dance in Japan
•Movement is pure
•Theme/store
•Musical accompaniment
•Training/practice, performance
•Decorative elements, costumes, make-up
•Stillness in Japanese dances are just as important as the movements.
Forms/Stles/Schools
•Large and small scale geography
oConsider the size and type of land mass
oConsider specific historic events that influence and serve as motivation for the expression of art.
•Stage construction (style, shape, function)
•Site specific Work (consider contextual and out of context as adjectives.)
Shinto
Shinto is dated to the 1st millennium B.C.

Shinto in centered more on the sensitivity to the spiritual forces that pervade nature rather than on founders, scriptures, philosophy, and moral code.
deity
• Focus for the class will be on deity, the sun goddess.
Buddhism
Buddhism is dated to the 6th century A.D.

Buddha was born on the border of Napal and India as Siddhartha Gotama. He became Buddha at age thirty five. The title of Buddha signifies heightened mental cultivation, wisdom, good, conduct. This belief includes: do no evil, cultivate goodness, purify one’s mind.
Dukkha
Fair Noble Truths

Life is subject to Dukkha.

Dukkha is caused by greed, anger deluded mind

Overcome Dukkha using Nirvana (state of mind)

Follow the 8 – fold path to Karma.
Temple Architecture
In India, the sculptures of the dancing body adorn temples.

In Japan, the importance of the dance is represented in a different manner.
“Uzume’s Dance on the Wooden Tub”
The legend that serves as the historical common thread in Japanese dance is “Uzume’s Dance on the Wooden Tub”
Ame No Uzume danced outside of a cave on a wooden tub.
The sun goddess Amaterasu had taken refuge in the cave. Uzume hoped to dance with such depth and integrity as to draw Amaterasu out so that she would shed light once again on a world plagued by darkness.
Uzume was successful and the qualities of the dance remained as a guiding archetype for the dances to follow.
This historic dance gives weight to the signifigance of the small area in which the dance took place.
The small area is also evidence in the traditional use of the tatami mat… still used for the surface of some liturgical dances.
Tatami mat
a small rectangle of woven grassed used for dance or sitting.
The significance of the overturned tub
The small area is the key condition that led to the “focusing of effects” which is central to Japanese dance.
The significance of the overturned tub is also one of sound resonance.
The hollow wooden stages of several Japanese dance forms fulfill the need of a reverbant sound quality.

…links to archetype
Okisa
“the force required by the reduction of the dancer’s efforts through concentration and restriction.”
Ma
spiritual and temporal links between one movement and the next that provide continuous flow.
The forms to be studied:
Kagura
Eunen
Noh
Kabuki
Bugaku )as part of the whole called Gaguku)
Butoh
Kagura
Early worship, in dance, of the Shinto religion in Japan. This practice has been described as the use of movement with a fan and accompanied by a musical ensemble to invite gods.
Miko – priestesses of the Shinto faith who practices the art of stylized movement to show ???
This form predates even the earliest Chinese influence on Japan.
Miko
priestesses of the Shinto faith who practices the art of stylized movement
Eunen
•Eunen are the dances that were performed by Buddhist monks at festivals.
•Both of the Buddhist forms along with the Shinto form, Kagura, had an impact on the evolution of Noh.
Noh
•Noh dates to the 14th century
•It is a form that features masks as a way to determine character.
•It depends on unreal and floating qualities for trademarks.
•Part of the unreal quality deals with the themes of supernatural beings.
•Part of the unreal quality deals with the abstraction of movement.
•A significant journey may be symbolized with one intense step.
Noh stage (course packet diagram)
•Originally, the stage was an outside structure.
•The back wall of the stage is called the pine or mirror board or Kagami-ita and is adorned with the image of the pine tree Matsubame.
•Seating for this form is set in 3 different angles (see course packet diagram).
Noh Characters
•Mad Character
•Beautiful Woman
•Warrior
•The tradition of the mid level gliding movement comes from the mode of walking for early royal court ladies and is considered the height of elegance.
•The tradition of the gliding also served the early themes of ghostly beings. These ghosts were thought of as legless so a steady floating action was desired.
Shi-te

Noh performance groupings
primary or leading characters in the Noh performance. They are central to the story and wear masks.
Waki

Noh performance groupings
secondary or supporting “foils” of the leading characters and do not wear masks.
Kyogen

Noh performance groupings
comic interlude players
Yugen
•Term that can apply to all art.
•Yugen – coudy impenetrable…obscure, unknown, mysterious…
•Some say it is beyond rationalization.
•It has also been called the hidden beauty within art…”the touch of cosmic truth” and “the sad realization of human fate.” –Zeami
Hana
• Hana is the “flower” or the effect of the successful performance
•The Noh performance strives to reach a level of communication with audience that goes beyond outwardly evident action.
•The “temporary flower” is considered to be a fleeting delite that the audience may …………?
Kokoro
•Kokoro means the “heart” or mind of the performer’s experience…
•A multilevel concept Kokoro is connected to the Buddhist ideas about the nature of all things.
•Kokoro refers to both the foundation of Noh as an art and to the energy for the performer’s impact on the audience.
•Self-conscious
•Unconscious/spontaneous
•Unity…division become one with source.
Monomane
•Monomane is sometimes translated as mimesis a representation of a being.
•This is key to the understanding of the 5 character types presented earlier.
Supernatural

Noh Characters
Ki often shows the defeat of the supernatural being through the good and cleaver conduct of another character.
Old Man

Noh Characters
Shin praises noble virtues.
Mad

Noh Characters
Kyo – a person, often a woman, seeking revenge, for some tragedy.
Beautiful Woman

Noh Characters
Jo – The exposition of the ideal woman is shown on the shape/theme of the lyrical court lady.
Warrior

Noh Characters
nan – The warrior or battle theme often includes the narrator of the warrior’s own tragedy.
Noh
•Noh – translated, means skill or craft... not only as a performing art but as a tool by which the performer gains the ability to concentrate. This concentration or exercise of mind can be compared to the perception that many people have about the martial arts. Consider the ling ???
Famous Noh Plays
•Two Examples:
•The “single horned hermit” represents a supernatural play
•The story of “Dojoji” is a mad play.
•????
Early Dance in Japan
•Religious – temples and festivals
•Kagura
•Kusemai, Eunen
•Public Theater
Training the Noh performer
•The group academic training method is not the tradition in Noh. Noh is communicated through a very personal and familiar way.
•The tradition is known as “father to son” instructions and inheritance. There are very few cases in which women have been seen performing Noh. This new trend is bound to grow as Noh acquires more global attention.
Kabuki
•Translated, Kabuki means song, dance, skill/technique.
•17th century origins for this theatre art are founded in the story of Okuni.
•Okuni, the “renegade” priestess danced at a shrine near Kyoto…then as a dancer at a famous riverbed of Kyoto’s Kamo river.
•Scandal and triumph of Okuni.
•The onnagata was born. (female impersonator)
•The Shogun’s restriction on travel added to the voyage fascination in Kabuki.
•Entertainment for the growing middle/upper class.
Kabuki training?
Kabuki training historically followed the “father to son” path.
furitsukeshi
The furitsukeshi is the title for the professional choreographer.
Kabuki
•The themes of the plays can include any of the Noh themes…
•With the addition of “the journey”
•One important aspect is for the performer to completely alter his character in every way.
Tokugawa Shogunate
•The beginning of the 17th century also marked the start of the Tokugawa Shogunate, and until 1853 had the power to keep Japan closed off from the rest of the world.
Mochimono
Mochimono – variety of hand held props, added to Kabuki
Sensu
fan, which serves as almost the only hand help prop in Noh…and served as an abstract symbol of many things.
Kabuki movements blend three elements…
•From Noh, mai, a circular and sliding motion
•Odori – a folk type of movement including light leaps and some big jumps.
•Fruri – a wide range of mime.
mai

(Noh)
From Noh, mai, a circular and sliding motion
Odori
a folk type of movement including light leaps and some big jumps.
Fruri
a wide range of mime.
Kabuki costume/make-up
•Kabuki employs make-up instead of masks, called Kabuki Kamadori.
•The mi came to be a trademark of Kabuki as the temporary shape or expression seen on a performer’s face.
Kabuki Stage
•Originally an outside stage, the Kabuki stage became housed indoors to satisfy its popularity. It was also innovative.
•Rotating platforms
•Geza – room off-stage for musicians
•Trap doors, ramps
Religious – temples and festivals
•Kagura – Shinto
•Eunen – Buddhist
Public Theater – Professional Stage
•Noh – masked
•Kabuki – make-up
•Imperial court – Tokoyo Nobility ---- Bugoku
Ichikawa Ennosuke
•Another popular star of the Kabuki stage who performs many different types of roles.
Bugaku
•Gaguku – a generic term for pure orchestral music of the court.
•Bugaku – “dance with music”
•Exclusive to nobility and only first seen by the general public as recently as after WWII.
Gaguku
a generic term for pure orchestral music of the court.
Kabuki
•The themes of the plays can include any of the Noh themes…
•With the addition of “the journey”
•One important aspect is for the performer to completely alter his character in every way.
Tokugawa Shogunate
•The beginning of the 17th century also marked the start of the Tokugawa Shogunate, and until 1853 had the power to keep Japan closed off from the rest of the world.
Mochimono
Mochimono – variety of hand held props, added to Kabuki
Sensu
fan, which serves as almost the only hand help prop in Noh…and served as an abstract symbol of many things.
Kabuki movements blend three elements…
•From Noh, mai, a circular and sliding motion
•Odori – a folk type of movement including light leaps and some big jumps.
•Fruri – a wide range of mime.
Public Theater – Professional Stage
•Noh – masked
•Kabuki – make-up
•Imperial court – Tokoyo Nobility ---- Bugoku
Ichikawa Ennosuke
•Another popular star of the Kabuki stage who performs many different types of roles.
Bugaku
•Bugaku – “dance with music”
•Exclusive to nobility and only first seen by the general public as recently as after WWII.
Gaguku
a generic term for pure orchestral music of the court.
The Tale of Genji
•11th century novel of courtly life written by a 30 year old woman, Mwrasaki Shikibu. Includes descriptions of courtiers not only attending performances, but also dancing.
•Shinzei Kogaku Zu
•12th century ink handscholl from the Heian period shows the dance.
Dances of the Left and Right: Samai and Umai
(Butoh)
•Left: origins from China, SE Asia, and India
•Samai are performed in a slow, elegant and gentle manner
•Right: Korea
•Umai showing spirited movement, involve human and angular patterns.
•The left group uses the color red in their clothing
•Right: green
Dances of the Left, Samai
•Left: origins from China, SE Asia, and India
•Samai are performed in a slow, elegant and gentle manner
•The left group uses the color red in their clothing
Dances of the Right,Umai
•Right: Korea
•Umai showing spirited movement, involve human and angular patterns.
•Right: green
Costumes
(Bugaku)
•Fashion of the Heian era (794-1192) serves as the archetype.
•Dances of the left use costumes with red-based colors and the right use green, blue or yellow costumes.
•If performing at a Shinto shrine, white costumes are used.
•White shoes, slightly more constructed than the soft footwear of Noh.
•Some dances ???
Props
(Bugaku)
Ex: spears, swords, imitation snakes, and even butterfly wings in children’s dances.
Dadiko (drums)
•These are two large drums, up to 20 ft. hight. They are placed on separate platforms near the stage.
•Decorated with images of the sun, moon, and often dragons.
•Other instruments: mouth organ, bronze gong, several types of drums, flutes, stringed instruments.
Butoh
•Butoh means dance, step
•Dance of (utter) darkness
Elements of the movement include:

(Butoh)
oOkisa – “the force required by the reduction of the dancer’s efforts through concentration and restriction.”
o MA– spiritual and tempral links between one movement and the next that provide continuous flow.
Founding artists –

(Butoh)
oTatsumi Hijikata – started the shocking genre known as Ankoko Butch – “dance of utter darkness”
oKazuo Ono, the co – founder is still performing in his 90s.
•Tatsumi Hijikata shocked the public with a new “choreiographic extremism” in 1959.
“Forbidden colors”
(Butoh)
•With collaborator Kazuo Ono and others, Hijikata produced “Forbidden colors” and it serves as the landmark start of Butoh.
New site specific
(Butoh)
•(outdoors – anywhere) work appeared at this time as well.
Sankai Juku
(Butoh)
formed in the mid-1970s, all male Butoh group, known for their site specific work and outside hanging technique.
Butoh disposed of classical dance parameters
•But traces of Japanese archetypes can be observed.
•Absense of Kabuki Kamadori – little or no character detail often just white make-up
•Movement traditions from Noh and ghostly appearance.
•Mie – startling images that leave an impression.
Mie
(Butoh)
startling images that leave an impression.