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104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Inhibition of inhibitory neuron is called _
DISINHIBITION
Neostriatum is _
Caudate nucleus + Putamen
Lentiform nuclei are _
Putamen + Globus Pallidus
Neostriatum + Lentiform nuclei (caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen ) are called
Corpus striatum
Diencephalon structure associated with basal nuclei
Subthalamic nucleus
Midbrain structure associated with basal nuclei
Substantia nigra
Caudate nucleus follows _ and is directly continuous with _
LATERAL VENTRICLES

PUTAMEN
80% of striatal neurons are _ that release _
SPINY CELLS

GABA and neuropeptides
10% of striatal neurons are _ that release _
Aspiny large type II neurons

Ach
Striosomes are patches that contain _ , receive input from _ and project on _
GABA, substance P and enkephalinergic neurons

Prefrontal lobe and limbic cortex

Substantia nigra pars compacta
_ neurons are the only efferent neurons of striatum - they have _ effect
GABAnergic

INHIBITORY
Stiffness throughout ROM is called _
RIGIDITY
Velocity dependent stiffness on passive stretch is called _
SPASTICITY
Lead pipe vs Cogwheel rigidity
Lead pipe - difficulty over entire ROM

Cogwheel - lead pipe rigidity + tremor
Dance like movements seen in Huntingtons are called _
CHOREA
Snake like movements seen in Huntingtons are called _
ATHETOSIS
Involuntary ballistic rapid movements are called _
BALLISMUS
Sustained involuntary contraction of muscles (like torticollis ) is called _
DYSTONIA
Extreme slowness in movements (seen in Parkinsons)
BRADYKINESIA
Genetic disorder that results in dementia and chorea is _
HUNTINGTONS
IN HUNTINGTONS abnormal movements affect _ first
HANDS
If you ordered MRI on patient with Huntingtons what would you see - what does it affect
Gross wasting of caudate and putamen - affects GABAnergic and enkephalinergic outflow
What type of disorder is HUNTINGTONS
HYPERKINETIC
Which basal ganglia pathway is damaged in Huntingtons and what is the result
INDIRECT PATHWAY (usually inhibitory for cortex ) - results in over excitation of cortex and leads to hyperkinetic disorder
Disease characterized by rigidity, bradykinesia and tremor is _
PARKINSONS
What type of tremor is in PARKINSONS
RESTING
What defect of basal ganglia is PARKINSONS associated with
Loss of pigmented DA neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta
Which basal ganglia pathway is damaged in Parkinsons
DIRECT - overall effect of inhibition of the cortex - results in hypoactive disorder
Copper metabolism disease that is characterized by copper deposits around iris is called _
WILSONS
Wilsons disease results in degeneration of which part of basal ganglia
PUTAMEN
Is Wilsons disease hyper or hypokinetic
HYPERKINETIC
Name therapy used in patients with basal ganglia disorders
DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION
Part of motor system responsible for reflexes
Spinal cord and brainstem
Part of motor system responsible for planning and initiation
Cortex and basal nuclei
Part of motor system responsible for fine tuning and coordination
CEREBELLUM
Intrafusal fibers of skeletal muscle are _
Muscle spindles
2 types of fibers within muscle spindle
Nuclear bag fibers

Nuclear chain fibers
Which part of muscle spindle is contractile and which is non contractile
Central bag like portion - NON CONTRACTILE

Distal portion - CONTRACTILE
2 types of nuclear bag fibers in muscle spindle
Dynamic - register rate of change

Static - register change
Each muscle spindle has two _ and about 5 _
BAG FIBERS (one dynamic and one static)

CHAIN FIBERS
There are two types of sensory axons that innervated central (non-contractile ) portion of muscle spindle _
Primary group Ia

Secondary group II
Group IA fibers innervate _

Cell bodies in _

Form _ endings

Synapse on _
Bag and chain fibers

DRG

Annulospiral endings


Synapse - V, VI (interneurons), VII (inhibitory interneurons), IX (alpha motor neurons)
Group II fibers innnervate _

Cell bodies in _

Form _ endings

Synapse on _
Innervate STATIC bag and all chain fibers

Cell bodies - DRG

Flower spray endings

Synapse - lamina IX, IV-VI
Places tension on sensory part of muscle spindle (this part cannot contract but rather can be stretched)
This can be accomplished with activity along _ neurons
Contraction of intrafusal fibers

GAMMA MOTOR
Spindles are arranged _ to extrafusal fibers

Receptors of nuclear bag and chain are in _
PARALLEL

IN SERIES
Tension in receptor portion of muscle spindle can be increased by _ thereby activating _
Putting tension on muscle

Ia and II fibers
Golgi tendon organs are usually found in TENDONS - T/F
False - GTO'S are usually not found in tendons but at the junction of tendon and muscle
What type of fibers are in GTO's
Ib
What produces increase in activity of Ib axons
Increasing load on muscle and thus GTO
Ib axons have cell bodies in _

Synapse in _

Innervate _
Cell bodies - DRG

Synapse - lamina V-VII

Innervate - inhibitory interneurons
When muscle is stretched _ fibers fire at increased rate as long as its stretched. This is called _ response

Some Ia fibers fire with a burst of AP's at onset - this is called _ response
Ia and II

STATIC

Dynamic
ISOTONIC CONTRACTION involves only activation of _ fibers so muscle shortens under constant load but contractile portion of spindle does not shorten since there is no drive to _ fibers. As a result of extrafusal contraction muscle spindle _ and activity of _ fibers is decreased (tension is relieved in spindle)
ALPHA

GAMMA

COLLAPSES

Ia and II
Define isometric contraction
There is increase in tension but length remains unchanged
In ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION there is no change in _ so spindle is not _ and there is no change in _ firing. Instead tension is transfered to _ and activates _ fibers
LENGTH

UNDER TENSION

Ia and II fibers

GTO

Ib fibers
Fusiform contraction involves activity of _ neurons and isometric contraction of _
This increases firing of _
BOTH alpha and gamma neurons

Contractile portion of muscle spindle

Ia and II axons
Damage to sensory endings of muscle spindle leads to _
JERKY MOVEMENTS - spindle functions as dampening mechanism
MUSCLE STRETCH REFLEX

Stretching muscle results in depolarization of _ --> Results in increase in activity of _ fibers --> In spinal cord some of these primary sensory axons influence _ neurons --> Results in activation of those neurons and subsequent contraction of the muscle
Nuclear bag and chain fibers

Ia and II fibers

Alpha motor
Muscle stretch reflex is an example of _ pathway
MONOSYNAPTIC
In muscle stretch reflex which muscle gets contracted
Same - SYNERGISTIC MUSCLE
In muscle stretch reflex what is inhibited - this is example of _ pathway
Alpha motor neurons of antagonistic muscles

POLYSYNAPTIC
In muscle stretch reflex _ neurons are minimally involved
II group
In clasp knife reflex you stretch muscle during contraction - this causes excessive load and activates _ which increases activity of _ fibers and muscle _
GTO

Ib fibers

COLLAPSES
Deltoid reflex level
C5
Biceps reflex level
C5-C6
Brachioradialis reflex level
C5-C6
Triceps reflex level
C7-C8
Quadriceps reflex level
L4
Tibialis anterior reflex level
L5
Achilles tendon reflex level
S1
Muscle stretch reflex can be _
Normal
Hyperactive
Hypoactive
UMN cell bodies are located in _
CEREBRAL CORTEX or BRAINSTEM
Do UMN's innervate muscles
NO - DO NOT directly innervate skeletal muscles
Damage to UMNs results in _ of muscle stretch reflex
INCREASE
LMN's cell bodies are located in _
Anterior horn of spinal cord or brainstem
What do LMN's innervate
SKELETAL MUSCLE DIRECTLY
When damaged LMN's leads to _ of muscle stretch reflex
DECREASE
Which conditions results in decrease in muscle stretch reflex
Peripheral neuropathy
Compression injury
Tabes Dorsalis
Polio
Myasthenia gravis
Muscular dystrophy
Damage to LMN's
Voluntary motor commands are issued from _
Cerebral cortex
Group II afferents facilitate which muscles
Extensors and flexors
For muscle spindles to work properly there needs to be co-activation of _
Alpha and gamma motor neurons
Approximately 1/3 of motor fibers are _
Gamma motor neurons
With activation of _ fibers spindle contracts --> increase in Ia and II firing --> activates _ neurons --> muscle contracts
Gamma fibers

Alpha motor neurons
ACTIVITY _ CAN ALTER MUSCLE TONE
GAMMA MOTOR NEURONS
Slow twitch fatigue resistant fibers are innervated by _
Small alpha motor neurons
Fast twitch fatigue susceptible fibers are innervated by _
Large alpha motor neurons
In execution of movement _ motor neurons are activated first - this ensures that _ muscles are engaged first
SMALL ALPHA MOTOR NEURONS

Slow twitch fatigue resistant
Describe spinal shock
Following trauma or transection of the spinal cord all functions are depressed - after several weeks cord regains excitability and usually becomes hyperexcitable
Signs of spinal shock
Areflexia
Decrease in arterial blood pressure
Loss of bladder/colon control
Earliest sign of muscle denervation
Appearance of fasciculations (muscle twitching) by injury potentials
Uncoordinated contractions of muscles that ARE NOT visible and can be only detected by EMG are called _
FIBRILLATIONS
Name descending motor pathways
Corticospinal and corticonuclear
Rubrospinal
Reticulospinal
Vestibulospinal
Tectospinal
Which pathways constitute entire voluntary cortical drive to brainstem and spinal cord
Corticospinal
Corticonuclear
Corticonuclear and corticospinal tracts arise from which areas of cerebral cortex
Primary motor cortex
Premotor and Supplemental motor cortex
Primary somatosensory cortex
Posterior parietal cortex
CNT and CST begins in _ --> enter _ --> go through _ --> pass _ --> travel through _ in medulla --> and end up in _
Cortex

Posterior limb of internal capsule

Middle 1/3 of crus cerebri

Basilar pons

Pyramids

Lateral funiculus of spinal cord
90% of axons of CNT and CST cross where
Decussation of pyramids
Motor nuclei of cranial nerves are usually bilateral EXCEPT
Nucleus ambiguus
Facial
Hypoglossal
Spinal accessory
Ipsilateral terminations of CNT and CST are in _
Red nucleus
Bilateral terminations of CNT and CST are in _
Reticular formation
90% of axons of corticospinal tract cross midline and become _
LATERAL CORTICOSPINAL TRACT
10% of axons of corticospinal tract stay ipsilateral and become _
ANTERIOR CORTICOSPINAL TRACT
Synapses in corticospinal tract occur mainly on _
INTERNEURONS
Major input to red nucleus is from _
Basal nuclei
Cerebral cortex
Cerebellum
Axons of rubrospinal tract derive from _ and immediately decussate in _
Magnocellular area of red nucleus

Ventral tegmental decussation
Which muscles are controlled by rubrospinal tract
Distal muscles used in fine precise movements