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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is neurulation?
The period of development starting with the first formation of the neural plate and ending with the closure of the neural tube.
What is primary neurulation?
Induction of the neural plate.
What is secondary neurulation?
What does the neural crest develop into?
Sensory neurons, cranial nerves, parts of the autonomic nervous sytem, and Schwann cells.
Define "spina bifida"
Failure of the posterior neural tube to close completely.
Define "anencephaly"
Failure of the anterior neural tube to close at all.
Define "holoprosencephaly"
Disrupted regional differentiation of the forebrain.
Define "gastrulation"
The cell movements (invagination and spreading) that transform the embryonic blastula into the gastrula.
Define "germ layers"
The three primary layers of the developing embryo from which all adult tissues arise: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
Define "ectoderm"
The most superficial of the three embryonic germ layers; gives rise to the nervous system and epidermis.
Define "endoderm"
The innermost of the three embryonic germ layers.
Define "mesoderm"
The middle of the three germ layers; gives rise to muscle, connective tissue, skeleton, and other structures.
Define "notochord"
A transient, cylindrical structure of mesodermal cells underlying the neural plate (and later the neural tube) in vertebrate embryos. Source of important inductive signals for spinal cord.
Define "primitive pit"
The thickened anterior end of the primitive streak; an important source of inductive signals during early development.
Define "primitive streak"
Axial thickening in the ectoderm of the gastrulas of reptiles, birds, and mammals; the mesoderm forms by the ingression of cells at this site.
Define "inductive signals"
Chemical signals originating from one set of cells that influence the differentiation of other cells.
Define "neurulation"
The process by which the neural plate folds to form the neural tube.
Define "neural plate"
The thickened region of the dorsal ectoderm of a neurula that gives rise to the neural tube.
Define "neural tube"
The primordium of the brain and spinal cord; derived from the neural ectoderm.
Define "neuroblast"
A dividing cell, the progeny of which develop into neurons.
Define "floorplate"
Region in the ventral portion of the developing spinal cord; important in the guidance and crossing of growing axons.
Define "neural crest"
A group of progenitor cells that forms along the dorsum of the neural tube and gives rise to the peripheral neurons and glia (among other derivatives).
Define "retinoic acid"
A derivative of vitamin A that acts as an inducer during early brain development.
Define "transcription factors"
A general term applied to proteins that regulate transcription, including basal transcription factors that interact with the RNA polymerase to initiate transcription, as well as those that bind elsewhere to stimulate or repress transcription.
Define "fibroblast growth factor (FGF)"
A peptide growth factor, originally defined by its mitogenic effects on fibroblasts; also acts as an inducer during early brain development.
Define "transforming growth factor (TGF)"
A class of peptide growth factors that acts as an inducer during early brain development.