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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
hypothalamus
a neural structure, right below the thalamus. directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temp).
Sympathetic nervous system
Part of the autonomic that arouses the body. Speeds up heart rate, dilates pupils.
sensory cortex
The area at the parietal lobes that registers and processes body senses.
Acetylcholine(ACh)
Neurotransmitter, triggers muscle contraction. Used whenever the body moves.
reticular formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays am important role in controlling arousal.
Parasympathetic nervous system
PArt of the autonomic that calms the body, conserving energy.
Broca's area
An area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
Central nervous system
The Brain and the spinal cord.
Frontal lobes
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead, involved in speaking, and muscle movements and making plans, and judgements. Sets us apart from animals.
Interneurons
Cental nervous system neurons that internally communitcate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
Temporal lobes
The protion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears. REcieves auditory information.
Dopamine
Neuro-chemical influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion. excess activity at dopamine receptors had been linked with Schizophrenia.
Limbic system
associated with emotions such as fear aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
Neurostransmitters
Chemical messangers that cross the synaptic Gap. Released by the axon, and bind to receptor sites on the recieving neuron.
Cerebellum
attached to the rear of the brainstem. "the little Brain" Coordinates voluntary movement and balance.
Synapse or Synaprtic gap or Cleft
The seperation between the axon terminal of one neuron, and the dendrite or cell body of the recieveing neuron.
Right Hemisphere (brain)
Visual area. uses left eye. controls movements on the left side of the body.
Threshold
The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
Lesion
Tissue destruction. A Brain lesion is naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.
Norepinephrine
helps control alertness and arousal.
Occipital lobes
the protion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head. Includes visual information.
Serotonin
Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal. Prozac and similar antidepressant drugs raise serotonin levels.
Glial cells
cells in the nervous system that are not neurons but that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
Peripheral nervous system
The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
Corpus callosum
The large band of neural fibers connecting the 2 brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
Endorphins
Natural opiate neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasire.
Cerebral cortex
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres.
Action Potential
A neural impulse, a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon. Generated by the positive charge of atoms.
Motor cortex
An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
Myelin Sheath
A layer of fatty tissue, insulating the axons of some neurons and helps speed their impulses.
Amygdala
2 almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion.
Sensory neurons
Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
Medulla
The base of the brainstem. Controls heartbeat amd breathing.
Axon
The Extension of a neuron ending in branching terminal fibers through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
Parietal lobes
The part of the cerebral cortex lying attop of the head and to the rear, includes the sensory cortex.
Autonomic nervous system
Part of the peripheral that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart)
aphasia
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere gamage either to Broca's areal or to Wernicke's area.
Motor neurons
Neurons that carry outgoing info. from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
Thalamus
Above the brainstem. The brains sensory switch board. directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
Neurons
A nerve cell; The basic building block of the nervous system.
Left Hemisphere (brain)
Usually most dominant. Controls speech, and the right side movements with the body. Uses right eye visual field.
Somatic nervous system
Division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the bodys skeletal muscles.
WErnicke's area
A brain area involved in language comprehension and expression, usually in the left temporal lobe.
Dendrites
Bushy, Branchy extension of a neuron that receives messages and conducts impulses toward the cell body.
Brainstem
The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions.
Split brain
a condition in which the 2 hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers between (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.
Association areas
Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions, rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.