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148 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nervous system composed of what?
Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
What makes up the CNS?
Brain and Spinal Cord
Brain composed of what 3 parts?
1. primitive core - sleeping & breathing
2. limbic system - basic drives (hunger/thirst) and emotions (rage/fear/pleasure)
3. cerebral cortex or cerebrum - higher functions
lower limbs paralyzed
four limbs paralyzed
paralysis in an arm and leg on one side of pody
slight or partial paralysis
abnormal sensations such as numbness, tingling or burning
abnormal sensitivity to sensation
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic and Autonomic NS
Somatic Nervous System
controls skeletal muscles
voluntary movement
info from senses
Autonomic Nervous System
"auto" or involuntary activity i.e. BP, heartbeat.
Autonomic arousal correlated with changes in emotionality
Measured by EKG and GS (galvanic skin response)
Autonomic Nervous System divided into what?
Sympathectic - "fight or flight"
Parasympathetic - relaxation, conservation
Action potentials of any given neuron are governed by what?
-action potential is not related to intensity of stimulation, only minimum has to be reached to generate AP
-intensity can generate more APs to stimulate more neurons
Multiple Sclerosis caused by what?
Loss of myelin - that which increases the speed of conduction.
Produces muscular weakness, poor coordination, and tremors
Acetylcholine's effect on muscles
*found in junction bt nerve & muscle fibers
*causes muscles to contract
*defects cause probs w/voluntary mvmt
Neurons that secrete Acetylcholine are called what?
cholinergic neurons
Acetylcholine's effect on brain
*learning and memory (new memories)
*implicated in Alzheimers (loss of ACh)
*mediates sexual behavior and REM sleep
Name the catecholamines
Norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine
Parkinson's Disease
*too little dopamine
*denigration of substantia nigra neurons in midbrain
too much dopamine,
also too much norepinephrine
too little norepinephrine
too little serotonin
*major inhibitory - depresses activity in NS
*too little = anxiety
*too little in motor areas of brain = Huntington's Chorea (invol, jerky mvmts)
*major excitatory in CNS
*in hippocampus - memory
*too much may be responsible for brain damage from stroke
Functions of the Medulla Oblonata
*basic functions
*breathing, HR, BP, digestion
*damage is fatal
Functions of the Pons
*arousal states
*raphe nuclei (uses serotonin) - trigger and maintain slow wave sleep
Functions of the Cerebellum
*balance, coordination, posture
*slurred speech, severe tremors, loss balance (T=tongue/tremors)
*damage to cerebellum produces this
Substantia Nigra
*part of extrapyramidal motor system
*Parkinson's disease
Reticular Formation
*sleep and arousal
*pain and touch
*controls reflexes
Reticular Activitating System (RAS)
*crucial for waking state, arousal and attention
*implicated in ADHD
*maintains body homeostasis (i.e. metabolism, temp, fluids)
*motivation beh (i.e. drinking, eating, sex, aggression)
*strong feelings into physical responses
*contains suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
What is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)?
*controls circadian rhythms
*"central relay station"
*relays sensory info to cortex except olfaction
Basal Ganglia
*voluntary movement
*includes caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and putamen
Extrapyramidal motor system
basal ganglia, substantia nigra, cerebellum
Limbic system
*emotional component of behavior
*includes amygdala, septum and hippocampus
*emotional significance to info
*mediates aggressive behavior
*damage produces lack of emotional response
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
*lesions in amygdala
*reduced fear and aggression, docile, hypersexual
*part of limbic system
*inhibits emotionality
*damage produces hyper-emotionality and vicious behavior
*part of limbic system
*memory consolidation - from short to long term
*damage produces severe, permanent anterograde amnesia (no new memories)
Damage to hippocampus, amygdala, and medial temporal lobes produces what?
*severe, permanent anterograde amnesia (no new memories - think memento)
*retain in short term but can't recall later
Frontal Lobe
*primary motor cortex
*expressive lang
*higher-order cognitive processes
*orientation to person, place, time
*inability to execute purposeful movements, despite normal strength and coordination (AX)
*damage to frontal/parietal lobes
Broca's aphasia
*frontal lobe, left hemisphere, speech production, expressive lang
*speak w/great difficulty ("Broken" english)
*aware of deficits
Prefrontal cortex
*executive functions
*lesions disrupt cognition/planning
*show decreased initiative, lack self-awareness, concrete
"Frontal Lobe Personality"
depressive syndrome (apathy) or psychopathic syndrome (disinhibition - cussing, hypersexual, inapprop social beh)
Temporal Lobe
*receptive language (primary auditory cortex)
*memory and emotion
Wernicke's aphasia
*temporal lobe, left hemisphere, lang comprehension, receptive lang
*receptive or fluent aphasia
*nonsense/jibberish speech
*unaware of deficits
can't name familiar objects
Temporal Lobe epilepsy
personality syndrome: intense emotions, religiosity, social clinging, changes in sexual behavior
Parietal Lobe
*primary somatosensory cortex
*touch-pressure, kinesthesia, pain and temp
Lesions in parietal lobe produce what?
*insensitivity to touch on opp side of body
*contralateral disruption of movement
*tactile agnosia
*impaired spatial orientation and facial recognition
*contralateral neglect
*inability to recognize body parts
Gertsmann's syndrome
*patterns of deficits caused by lesions to parietal lobe
*agrahia, acalculia, right-left confusion and finger agnosia
Occipital Lobe
*visual cortex
*destruction in either hemisphere results in contralateral blindness
*less extensive damage causes various distortions and visual agnosia
left hemisphere (dominant) controls what functions?
*verbal functions: written/spoken lang
*rational/logical activities
*damage results in clinical depression or intense anxiety
right hemisphere (non-dominant) controls what functions?
*visual-spatial activities
*artistic/musical abilities
*damage results in apathy and indifference, w/exaggerated but short lived emotional responses
Corpus Callosum
bundle of fibers that enables communication between two hemispheres
conduction aphasia
*caused by damage to arcuate fasciculus, fibers connecting Broca's and Wernicke's area
*person's speech makes sense but person cannot repeat what they just heard
Freud's belief about emotions
*not under conscious control
*tied to early experiences
James-Lange Theory of emotion
behavior first then emotion,
*we are afraid because we tremble, sorry because we cry
Cannon-Bard Theory of emotion
*behavior (arousal) and emotion happen simultaneously, not cause/effect
*all emotions identical in terms of arousal
Cognitive-Arousal Theory of emotion
*Schachter and Singer
*arousal and cognitive attributaions for arousal
Universal emotions: T or F?
True, agreement on 6 basic emotions: fear, anger, joy, sadness, surprise and disgust,
Which two brain regions are centers for hunger and satiety?
hypothalamus - lateral and ventromedial
LH - failure to eat/drink, "Little Hunger"
VMH - overeating, "Very Much Hunger"
Research findings on external cues and obesity?
*obese are less responsive to internal, biological hunger cue and more responsive to external cues
*stress eating
What effect does lutenizing hormone (LH) have on body?
*from pituitary & hypothalamus
*gonads (testes/ovaries) produce angdrogens and estrogen
What effect does Follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH) have on body?
*from pituitary & hypothalamus
*causes production of sperm and release egg
*primarily male but found in female
*cause dev of 2' sex chara in males
*sex inerest in both males and females
*found in male and females, male function unknown
*females: sex dev and repod functioning
*less of role in sex behavior - experience more of role
Effect of spinal cord injury on sexual functioning
*ejaculation affected, less on erection or interest
*less effect on females
Stages of sleep
5 stages, 4 Non-REM, 5th REM
1-transitional, alpha into slower theta
2-theta, "sleep spindles", K-complexes (bursts faster/higher waves)
3-delta appear
4-predominantely delta
(stages 3&4=delta/deep sleep)
5-REM, aroused nervous system w/low responsivity to environ
alpha waves
relaxed wakefulness
beta waves
active, alert states - faster
Sleep cycle
*100 minutes, 4-6x night
*REM increases thru nite
*delta/deep sleep decreases thru nite
Memory: temporal lobe vs. hippocampus
temporal lobe - long-term memory
hippocampus - consolidation
Korsakoff's syndrome
*memory disorder in alcoholics
*lesions in mammillary bodies (hypothalamus) and thalamus
*retro/antero amnesia, confabulation, apathy
Long-term potentiation
*responsible for long-term memory
*changes in synaptic structrue following high stim of neurons
*in hippocampal cells
*RiboNucleic acid
*stimulates memory and learning
*training/experiences increases RNA
Endocrine system
*controlled by hypothalamus
*comprised of glands that secrete hormones to influence organ functioning
*pituitary, adrenal, gonads, thyroid, pancras
Pituitary gland
*"master gland"
*secretes growth hormone/somatotropic hormone
*and antidiuretic hormone
Adrenal Cortex
*secretes cortisol
*stimulates liver to convert energy into glucose for fuel
*cortisol released by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Addison's Disease
*under-secretion of ACTH in adrenal cortex
*fatigue, fainting, loss appetite, weight loss, depression, apathy
Cushing's Disease
*over-secretion of ACTH in adrenal cortex
*obesity, memory loss, mood swings, depression, somatic delusions
Thyroid gland
*hormone thyroxin
*controls metabolism
under-secretion of thyroxin
slows metab, weight gain, decreased sex drive, depression w/cognitive impairment
over-secretion of thyroxin
*a.k.a. Grave's Disease
*increase metab, appetite, weight loss, nervousness, insomnia, fatigue
*releases insulin
*diabetes and hypoglycemia
Anatomy of Eye
1. Cornea - cover
2. Pupil (Iris) - dialation
3. Lens - focuses light waves on retina
4. Retina - receptors of visual system
Rods and Cones - compare/contrast
Rods - brightness, esp. at night, periphery of retina
Cones - color, center of retina
Travel of visual signals
1. optic tract
2. lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus
3. visual cortex in occipital lobe
describe variations of sound waves
1. frequency (pitch) or Hertz
2. amplitude (loudness) or decibels
3. overtones (timbre)
auditory localization
*ability to orient toward the direction of a sound
*present at birth, declines, then re-emerges, full dev at 1 year
Gate-control theory of pain
*activation of larger fibers "closes gate"
*activities include massage, heat/cold, distracting mental activities
what makes olfaction different from other senses?
*directly to limbic system, not relayed through thalamus or cross hemispheric
*considered most primitive of senses or "lowest on phylogenetic scale"
absolute threshold
Fechner - psychophysics
*weakest stim a person can detect
*intensity at which stim is detected 50% of time
difference threshold, "just noticeable difference"
Fechner - psychophysics
*smallest physical diff between two stim recognized as difference
*vary depending on magnitude of original stim
structural brain imaging techniques
*info about structure of brain
*CT scan (xrays, "slices")
*MRI (more precise, not xray)
functional brain imaging techniques
*info both structure and function
*PET (inject radioactive material) - map NTs and dys due to conditions
Dysarthria vs. Aphasia
*Dysarthria is problem in articulation, common in Parkinson's, Huntington's and MS
*Aphasia is language disturbance
Alexia vs Dyslexia
*Alexia - word blindness caused by acquired brain lesion
*Dyslexia - learning disability (not lesion)
inability to recognize familiar faces (use "soap" to wash face)
*inability or unwillingness to recognize one's own functional impairment, and sometimes other's impairment
*often in stroke patients in right parietal cortex
anosognosia vs. contralateral neglect
*contralateral neglect are inattentive to EVERYTHING in oppositive field of vision vs. only functional defects
*contralateral neglect will acknowledge if attention directed to it vs. anosognosia px continue to deny
symptoms of brain tumor
1. headaches
2. seizures
3. nausea/vomiting
4. change vision/hearing
5. focal neurological signs
differences in locale of brain tumor, child vs. adult
child - brainstem and cerebellum
adult - cerebral cortex
results of stroke
*50% die immed or w/i months
*only 10% fully recover
*greatest improvement occurs in 1st 6 months
*physical symptoms improve quicker than cognitive symptoms.
Most common cause of brain damage in people under 40?
Head trauma
best predictor of degree of injury and recovery following closed head trauma?
*duration of anterograde amnesia
*most recovery occurs w/i 6-9 months
postconcussional disorder - proposed DSM-IV for further study
*presence of sig concussion following head trauma (LOC) and
3+ symptoms for at least 3 mos following (i.e. fatigue, headaches, irritability)
Huntington's chorea
*affective, personality, motor and cognitive changes/deterioriation
*genetically trans to 1/2 offspring
*athetosis - slow writhing mvmts
*chorea - invol, jerky mvmts
*substantia nigra, basal ganglia, cortex
*glutamate, ACh, GABA, dopamine
Parkinson's disease
*tremor at rest
*muscle rigidity
*invol mvmts
*equilibrium disturbances
*akinesia - slowness mvmt, blank exp, emotionless speech
*40% comorbid depression
*substantia nigra
*too little dopamine
Name the 3 classes of antidepressants
1. tricyclics
2. SSRIs
3. MAOIs
MOA of tricyclics
block reuptake of norepi and serotonin
tricyclics most effective at tx what?
1. vegetative symtpoms of depression
2. panic attacks, agoraphobia and obsessive states
side effects of tricyclics
-anticholinergic effects (dry up)
-cardiovascular effects
cautions of tricyclics
-OD can be lethal (cardiac arrest)
-combo w/MAOI causes severe convulsions
-caution w/suicidal px
Examples of tricyclics
imipramine (Tofranil)
clomipramine (Anafranil) - OCD
amitriptyline (Elavil)
inhibit reuptake of serotonin
SSRIs prescribed for what?
side effects if SSRIs
-initally worsen anxiety/sleep
(not cardiotoxic, no OD threat, no antichol, no cognitive imp, faster acting)
motor restlessness
Examples of SSRIs
Fluoxetine (Prozac)
Sertaline (Zoloft)
Paroxetine (Paxil)
bloc enzymes that breakdown norepi and serotonin
MAOIs recommended for what?
atypical depression w/anxiety
side effects of MAOIs
-fatal hypertensive crisis w/tyramine!!
-OD can be fatal (suicide risk)
Examples of MAOIs
phenelzine (Nardil)
tranylcypromine (Parnate)
Name mood stabilizers/anti-convulsant drugs
Lithium - tx if choice for bipolar
carbamazepine (Tegretol) - as effective as Lithium in mania esp. dysphoric and rapid cycling mania, faster onset than Lithium
valproic acid (Depakote) - fewer SE
Side effects of lithium
-gastric distress, weight gain, fatigue, mild cog imp
-35% tremor in fingers
-lithium toxicity
MOA of antipsychotics (neuroleptics)
block dopmine receptors
Examples of antipsychotics (neuroleptics)
chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
thioridazine (Mellaril)
haloperidol (Haldol)
clozapine (Clozaril) - less SE, more NTs
antipsychotics (neuroleptics) prescribed for?
-schizophrenia: positive symptoms
-acute mania, psychotic symptoms
dopamine hypothesis
schizophrenia relaed to overactivity of dopamine (Parkinson's too little), experts now believe more complex and involve other NT like norepi and serotonin
side effects of antipsychotics (neuroleptics)
extrapyramidal: Parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia (abnormal invol mvmts esp in face)
tardive dyskinesia
-abnormal invol mvmts esp in face
-delayed effect of antipsychotic use
-relieved somewhat w/withdrawal
What is special about clozapine (Clozaril)?
-newer "atypical" antipsychotic
-less SE (no tardive dys or exrapyram)
-lowers activity of multiple NT
-agranulocytosis (low white blood cells)
MOA of benzodiazepines
increase GABA activity which inhibits CNS
SE of benzos
-drowsiness and sedation
-anterorgade amnesia (esp w/IV)
-elderly - confusion and disorient
-fatal if mixed w/alcohol or other CNS depressant
MOA and examples of barbiturates
interrupt impulses to RAS
thiopental (Pentothal)
amobarbital (Amytal)
secobarbital (Seconal)
barbituates tx for what?
-replaced by benzos for anxiety
-anesthetic, acute mgmt of agitated px
SE of barbituates
-addictive (fatal withdrawal)
-drug-of-choice for suicide
-suppress respiration
-esp. lethal w/alcohol
Beta-blockers as tx for what?
performance related anxiety
(reduces sympathetic NS activity)
benzos vs. beta-blockers?
-beta blockers less effective in tx cognitive/psychic experience of anxiety but moe effective in physical
-beta blockers more likely cause memory impairment
MOA of psychostimulants
mimic catecholamines (norepi and dopamine) in brain
MOA of narcotic-analgesics
block transmission of neural impulses to CNS
narcotic-analgesics tx for what?
pre-operative meds, acute pain, chronic pain w/cancer, detox
Methadone used for what?
in detoxification programs as substitute for heroin, milder withdrawal
biofeedback to treat anxiety targets what part of nervous system?
parasympathetic of autonomic NS - relaxation and recuperation