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97 Cards in this Set

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Inability to convert short-term into lon-term memory is associated with damage to:
the hippocampus
Area of the brain responsible for expressive speech:
Broca's area
Which brain structure servesas the relay station for sensory info from all sensory modalities except olfaction?
The thalamus (olfactory info goes straight to the cortex)
The ARAS (Ascending Reticular Activating System) produces its effects on motivation by:
providing diffuse facilitation to the entire cortex
Long term potentiation is associated with:
learning and memory (observed in the hippocampal neurons)
Studies on the effectiveness of SSRI's on treating eating disorders has shown:
Serotonin may be an etiological factor in both disorders, and thus SSRI's can be an effective treatment component
Wernicke's aphasia:
Receptive - affects comprehension
Broca's aphasia:
Expressive - difficulty expressing language
In terms of brain structures, Broca's aphasia is to Wernicke's apahasia as:
The frontal lobe is to the temporal lobe.
Which neurotransmitter is most associated with Tourette's disorder?
Dopamine
A patient taking clozapine with symptoms of muscle rigidity, tachycardia, sweating, hyperthermia, and altered consciousness:
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)
Research on the impact of radiation and chemo on children's cognitive abilities has shown:
Deficits associtaed with both procedures
Risk factors for Vascular dementia include:
Diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease
Apraxia is a:
inability to execute purposeful movements
Akathesia is:
Motor restlessness
Ataxia is:
Incoordination, often with slurred speech
The basal ganglia:
codes and relays information asscoiated with the control of voluntary movement
Hydrocephalus is associated with:
the ventricles (occurs when flow of cerebrospinal fluid is blocked)
Elderly sleep patterns differ in that they:
Have increased non-REM sleep in stages 1 & 2, and decreased absolute amounts of REM
Patients with Schizophrenia are likely to have an enlarged:
Lateral and third ventricles
Explicit memory is mediated by the:
hippocampus, medial thalamus, and prefrontal cortex
Implicit memory is mediated by the:
Basal ganglia, ventral thalamus, and premotor cortex
As a treatment for mania, the anticonvulsant carbamazepine:
May be more effective than lithium for dysphoric (rapid cycling) mania
Long term effects of Tardive Dyskinesia are:
Irreversible in about 50%, but other half show gradual improvement
Some atypical antipsychoticslike clozapine, exert their effects by restoring the balanc between:
dopamine & norepinephrine/and or serotonin
Symptoms of memory impairment, faulty judgement, & impaired concentration, would most likely result from lesions to the:
Temporal lobe
Agnosia refers to:
loss of ability to recognize various non-language types of stimulation
Withdrawing a neuroleptic from a patient with TD, will result in:
possible increase in symptoms, but followed by a decrease in symptoms
Clomipramine, an antidepressent that increase availbility of serotonin, also affects OCD by:
reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms
An MRI of a patient in the early phases Huntigtons disease would indicate:
reduced volume of the basal ganglia
Intial symptoms of Huntington's disease include:
Depression, anxiety, and/or irritability (followed by moor & cognitive symptoms)
Long-term potentiation was intially observed in the cells of the
Hippocampus
Following a stroke, a patient exhibits right hemiplegia. Other symptoms include:
speech-language deficits & slow-cautious behavior style
Clonidines side effects include:
dry mouth, headache, hypotension, sedation & dizziness
Patient who has tremors due to lithium should:
Lower the dose or be administered Propranolol (a beta-blocker)
For sex-role determinants, the characteristic that is most related to genetics is:
aggression
Males low on adrogyny...
adhere more rigidly to sex sterotypic behaviors (tend to be less happy, content adjusted)
Hemiplegia
paralysis in an arm and leg on one side of the body
Parasthesia
abnormal sensations such as numbness, tingling or burning (due to damage of spinal cord)
Salatory Conduction
Conduction in axons with myelin
Acetycholine
Causes muscles to contract. Deficits = impairments in voluntary movement
Catecholamines
(inlcude norepinephrine, epinephrine, & dopamine)
Associated with personality, mood & drive states
Lack is associated with depression, while exxcess with schizophrenia
GABA
most common inhibitory neurotransmitter - causes depressing effect
Deficits are associated with Huntington
Glutamate
Major excitatory neurotransmitter
Found in hippocampus & plays role in memory
Pons
Connects 2 halves of cerebellum. Regulates arousal.
Maintains slow-wave sleep
Substantia Nigra
Controls aspects of movement
Reticular Formation
Sleep, arousal & attention. Touch & pain sensation. Control of reflexes
Hypothalamus
Homeostasis, temperture, metabolism, appetite, sleep. Involved with strong feelings, hunger, thirst & sex
Thalamus
Central switching station for all sensory info except olfaction.
Limbic System
Mediates emotional component of behavior. Consists of Amygdala, septum & hippocampus
Amygdala
Directs emotional behavior, attaches emotional signifigance to info. Mediates defensive/aggressive behavior
Septum
Inhibits emotionality & pleasure center (damage to causes hyper-emotionality & rage)
Hippocampus
Memory consolidation (STM to LTM)
Frontal Lobe
Motor behavior, expressive language, higher-level cognitive processes, orientation to time & place
Damge can cause "frontal lobe personality (depressive or psychopathic syndrome)
Temporal Lobe
Receptive language, memory, & emotion. Contains the primary auditory cortex
Damage = auditoay agnosia, deficits in attention
Parietal Lobe
Primary somatosensory cortex and processes touch-pressure, pain & temperature.
Damage = insensitivity to touch, disruption of movement, tactile agnosia, impaired spatial orientation,
Gertsmann's Syndrome
lesions in parietal lobe. Characterized by agraphia, right-left confusion, & finger agnosia
Occipital Lobe
Visual cortex. Destruction = contralateral blindness, damage = image distortion, blind spots, depth perception problems & visual agnosia
Cannon-Bard Theory
Arousal accompanies emotional feeling rather than causes it
ADHD is implicated in functioning in the:
frontal lobe
"Satisfaction center" of the brain:
Cingulate gyrus (mediates feelings following sex & eating)
Predictors of adjustment following aphasia:
1)Being left-handed
2)Younger age
3)Less severity
4)Recovery during first 3 months
Brain part that manages the circadian rhythm:
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (within the hypothalamus)
Trycyclic antidepressents are most effective for:
Relieving vegatative symptoms (appetite, sleep, motor disturbances)
Korsakoff's syndrome is due to:
thiamine deficinecy
Kluver-Bucy syndrome:
caused by damage to amygdala, causing reduced fear and aggression
Indifference and euphoria related to which brain area?
Typical symptoms of orbitofrontal damage reflect
socio-emotional rather than cognitive changes and may
be summarized as: INDIFFERENCE, poor judgment, lack of
foresight, unreliability, facetiousness, EUPHORIA,
emotional shallowness, childish behaviour,
disinhibition, and irritability
If person has MVA and trouble with work duties (but nothing
extreme--more higher-order stuff), what area is most likely to show
damage on EEG?
Frontal lobe
Medication of choice for prophylactic treatment of panic disorder:
Anti-depressents (SSRI's & trycyclics)
Parkinson's is due to loss of cell in the:
Substantia nigra (which is part of the basal ganglia) which in turn affects the thalamus & cortex. Symptoms can be temporarily alleviated by L-Dopa
ACTH
Controls the release of cortisol
Under-secretion = Addison's disease (fatigue, fainting, depression, weight loss)
Over-secretion = Cushing's Disease (obesity, memory loss, depression, somatic delusions)
Hypothyroidism
Under-secretion of thyroxine (slowed metabolism, wight gain, lowered heart rate, depression & cognitive impairment)
Hyperthyroidism
Over-secretion of thyroxine (elevated body temperature, weight loss, tachycardia, agitation, mania, reduced attention span)
Auditory localization
Emerges at birth, declines between months 1-4, reemerges at 4-5 and by 12 is fully developed
Absolute threshold
intensity at which a stimulus is detected 50% of the time (Fechner)
Dysarthia
Involves problems in articulation due to lesions or disease that disrupts the control of speech (Symptom of Parkinson's, Huntingtons, & MS)
Visual Agnosia
Aperceptive agnosia = cannot recognize objects by sight, but can when placed in hand
Associative = cannot name an object, but can describe how it is used
Location of brain tumors for children & adults:
Children - brainstem & cerebellum
Adults - cerebral cortex
Stroke recovery
About 10% fully recover
Most recovery in first 6 months
Physical symptoms improve more than cognitive ones
Best predictor of recovery from closed head injury:
Duration of the anterograde amnesia
Huntington's Chorea
After intial symptoms of depression, forgetfulness, personality changes, & motor symptoms manifest. Finally slow & jerky movements, dementia
Uses of Lithium
1)Bipolar disorder
2)Schizophrenia
3)Intermittent explosive disorder
4)Binge drinking
Benzo's are used for
1)Anxiety (GAD)
2)Insomnia
3)Svere alcohol withdrawal
4)Petit mal epilepsy
Side effects of Benzo's
Sedation, weight gain, apathy, GI distress, paradoxical excitation, sexual dysfunction, anterograde amnesia (for Ativan IV)
Drug of choice for suicide
Barbiturates (fatally suppress respiration)
Beta blockers are particularly useful for treating:
Anxiety related to public speaking
Frequent side effect of benzos in the elderly:
Confusion & disorientation
Which deficits are associated with left and right hemispheric brain damage, respectively?
Left: speech-language deficits and slow-cautious behavioral style
Right: spatial-perceptual deficits and quick-impulsive behavior style
Describe Hypoglycemia in terms of the psychiatric symptoms it mirrors?
In Acute phase, it looks like Panic Disorder (anxiety, panic). In Chronic phase, these are replaced with depression, psychosis, and /or personality change
Anosognosia
deficit in self-awareness (cauaed by damage to
What percentage of patients with Parkinson's who are depressed, had the depression preced the other symptoms?
About 50%
Which neurotransmitters have been linked to Social Phobia?
Srotonin & dopamine
Split-brain patients have duifficlty with which functions?
Sensory
Area of the brain in which damage causes apathy/indifference?
Frontal lobe
Beta waves are present during
Alert activity
Side effects of Ritalin:
Loss of appetite, abdoiminal pain, insomnia, & tachycardia
Gate Control Theory of Pain
Pain gate to brain is either open or closed - positive feelings tend to close the gate while negative ones tend to open the gate