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63 Cards in this Set

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LIST THE 5 PURPOSES/INDICATIONS FOR PERFORMING NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES
TO REMOVE PATHOLOGICAL LESIONS, RELIEVE PRESSURE ON THE BRAIN OR SPINAL CORD, AND REPAIR INJURED AND DISEASED PERIPHERAL NERVES,AND TREATMENT OF CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ARE...
SENSORY: detects alterations of internal and external stimuli, INTEGRATIVE: sensory info. is analyzed and appropriate behaviors selected in response, MOTOR: appropriate behaviors implemented
THE 4 PRINCIPLE PARTS OF THE BRAIN; LIST NAME AND FUNCTION OF EACH
FOREBRAIN: cerebrum governs all activities and sensory impulses(speech functions, nonverbal & intuitive behaviors), MIDBRAIN: corpora quadrigemina responsible for relaying auditory and visual impulses (visual reflexes) & cerebral peduncles carry impulses to and from the cerebrum, HINDBRAIN: cerebellum helps control coordination & movement& helps control equilibrium; pons serves as relay between medulla and cerebral peduncles; medulla oblongata resoponsible for vital functions such as control of circulatory system, respiration, and heart beat; SPINAL CORD: functions to conduct impulses & serve as a spinal relfex center
NAME 8 BONES OF CRANIUM
1 ETHMOID, 1 SPHENOID, 2 TEMPORAL, 2 PARIETAL, 1 FRONTAL 1 OCCIPITAL
NAME 3 MENINGEAL LAYERS IN SEQUENCE FROM OUTERMOST TO INNERMOST
DURA MATER, ARACHNOID MATER, PIA MATER
FUNCTIONS OF CSF
SERVE TO CUSHION AND SUPPORT BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD, ACTS AS FILTER OF WASTE PRODUCTS OF METABOLISM AND OTHER SUBSTANCES THAT DIFFUSE THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER, AND STABILIZES IONIC CONCENTRATION OF THE CNS
***WHERE IS CSF FORMED, STORED, AND ABSORBED?
FORMED IN THE CHOROID PLEXUSES OF THE WALLS OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLES; ABSORBED BY THE ARACHNOID VILLI IN DURAL SINUSES
WHAT ARE THE CONTENTS OF CSF
SMALL AMTS. OF PROTEIN, GLUCOSE, LACTIC ACID, UREA, & POTASSIUM; RELATIVELY LARGE AMTS. OF SODIUM CHLORIDE
***GIVE DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE BRAIN
CEREBRAL ARTERIES (ANTERIOR, MIDDLE, AND POSTERIOR) SUPPLY MOST OF THE FRONTAL AND TEMPORAL LOBES; INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERIES BECOME ARTERIAL CEREBRAL ARTERIES ONCE THEY ENTER THE CIRCLE OF WILLIS AND SUPPLY MOST OF FRONTAL, PARIETAL, AND TEMPORAL LOBES; COMMUNICATING ARTERIES (ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR) CONNECT CEREBRAL ARTERIES IN THE CIRCLE OF WILLIS
***WHAT IS THE CIRCLE OF WILLIS? WHAT CONDITION DEVELOPS HERE?
RING OF ARTERIES AT THE BASE OF THE BRAIN WHERE MAJOR ARTERIES CONVERGE; aneurysm?
WHAT ARE THE 2 SUBDIVISIONS OF THE ANS, AND WHAT IS THE BASIC FUNCTION OF EACH?
SYMPATHETIC: FIGHT OR FLIGHT & PARASYMPATHETIC: REST & DIGEST
DEFINE AND BRIEFLY DESCRIBE THE LAYERS OF THE SCALP
SKIN=VERY THICK, SUBQ=HIGHLY VASCULAR, GALEA=TOUGH, FIBROUS TISSUE SHEET, PERICRANIUM=PERIOSTEUM OF THE SKULL
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MYELINATED AND NONMYELINATED NERVE FIBERS?
AXONS ARE COVERED IN A PROTECTIVE SHEATH, CALLED NEURILEMMA, THAT SPEEDS UP IMPULSES AS THEY TRAVEL
THE AUDITORY PROCESSING CENTER OF THE BRAIN IS LOCATED IN WHAT LOBE?
TEMPORAL
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WERNICKE'S AREA AND BROCA'S AREA
WERNICKE'S AREA IS THE SPEECH CENTER WITHIN THE TEMPORAL LOBE; BROCA'S AREA IS THE MOTOR SPEECH CENTER LOCATED IN FRONTAL LOBE
12 CRANIAL NERVES AND PRIMARY FUNCTION
OLFACTORY-SMELL, OPTIC-VISION, OCULOMOTOR-MOVEMENT OF EYE AND PUPIL CONSTRICTION, TROCHLEAR-MVMNT. OF EYE, TRIGEMINAL-SKIN SENSATION ABOVE EYE, FROM ORBIT TO MOUTH, & CHEWING, ABDUCENS-MVMNT. OF EYE, FACIAL-FACIAL EXPRESSIONS, TEARS, SALIVA, VESTIBULOCOCCHLEAR-HEARING & BALANCE, GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL-BLOOD PRESSURE & TASTE, VAGUS-VISCERAL ORGANS, ACCESSORY-SWALLOWING & HEAD MVMNTS., HYPOGLOSSAL-TONGUE & SWALLOWING
LIST SPINAL PLEXI AND FUNCTION OF EACH
CERVICAL-MANAGE HEAD, EAR, NECK, UPPER CHEST, DIAPHRAGM, SHOULDERS, BRACHIAL-SHOULDER & UPPER LIMBS, LUMBAR-ABDOMEN, GENITALS, PORTIONS OF LOWER EXTREMITIES, SACRAL-SEXUAL FUNCTION, BOWEL, BLADDER, LEG & FOOT
LIST METHODS OF MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL HEMOSTASIS
CHEMICAL-AGENTS SUCH AS AVITENE, GELFOAM, SURGICEL, THROMBIN; MECHANICAL-SLOWS BLOOD FLOW USING SPONGES, CLIPS, FORCEPS, CLAMPS, ESU, OR WAX
WHAT IS CUSA AND WHAT DOES IT STAND FOR?
REMOVES BODY TISSUE THROUGH FRAGMENTATION, IRRIGATION, AND SUCTION; CAVITRON ULTRASONIC SURGICAL ASPIRATOR
WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON SOURCES OF METASTATIC TUMORS OF THE BRAIN?
BREAST OR BONE
WHAT IS A HERNIATED INTERVERTEBRAL DISC? HOW IS IT TREATED?
A RUPTURE IN THE FIBROCARTILAGE SURROUNDING AN INTERVERTEBRAL DISC; WITH FUSION OR LAMINECTOMY
DEFINE ACDF. WHAT DOES THIS PROCEDURE ENTAIL?
ANTERIOR CERVICAL DISK FUSION; ONE OR MORE HERNIATED CERVICAL INTERVERTEBRAL DISKS ARE EXCISED, AND BONE GRAFTS OR PLATES ARE PLACED BETWEEN THE VERTEBRAE TO FUSE THEM TOGETHER.
PURPOSE OF BURR HOLES? WHAT INSTRUMENTS ARE NEEEDED?
PERFORMED IN CRANIOTOMY TO TREAT SUBDURAL HEMATOMAS AND BRAIN ABCESS; PERFORATOR AND CRANIOTOME (POSSIBLY CURETTES TO REMOVE DEBRIS
DEFINE CRANIOTOMY; HOW ARE CRANIS CLASSIFIED?; WHY ARE THEY PERFORMED?
INCISING THE CRANIUM FOR BRAIN ACCESS TO REMOVE BLOOD CLOTS OR LESIONS; ACCORDING TO LOCATION
WHAT IS A SKULL FLAP & HOW IS IT CREATED?
THE SURGEON CREATES A BONE FLAP IN PERFORMING CRANIOTOMY; THE BONE IS LEFT ATTACHED TO MUSCLE AND TURMED BACK WITH THE SOFT TISSUE TO WHICH IT IS ATTACHED
WHAT IS AN INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM? WHAT'S THE CAUSE? MOST COMMON SITES OF OCCURRENCE? TREATMENT OPTIONS?
A BULGING ON AN ARTERY CAUSED BY WEAKENING; COMMON SITE IS CIRLE OF WILLIS CALLED BERRY ANEURYSM; ANEURYSM CLIPS OR SUTURE LIGATION--IN SOME CASES MMA IS USED TO WRAP THE AREA
WHAT'S A SHUNT? WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF A SHUNTING PROCEDURE? NAME VARIOUS PROCEDURES.
DIVERSION OF CEREBROSPINAL FLUID; TO REMOVE EXCESS FLUID TO RELIEVE PRESSURE ON THE BRAIN; VENTRICULOATRIAL(VA), VENTRICULOPERITONEAL(VP), & IN VITRO
WHAT IS A TRANSSPHENOIDAL HYPOPHYSECTOMY? WHAT IS THE PROCEDURE DONE FOR? HOW IS IT PERFORMED AND BY WHOM?
REMOVAL OF ALL OR A PORTION OF PITUITARY; TO SLOW GROWTH AND SPREAD OF ENDOCRINE DEPENDENT MALIGNANT TUMORS; ENT DR?
WHAT ARE DEPOMEDROL & DEXOMETHAZONE?
STEROIDS THAT PREVENT ADHESIONS AND SCARRING
WHAT'S FUROSEMIDE?
DIURETIC AKA LASIX
WHAT'S MANNITOL?
OSMOTIC DIURETIC USED IN CRANIAL PROCEDURES FOR ICP
WHAT IS MANDOL?
ANTIBIOTIC USED IN CRANI. IRRIGATION
WHAT IS PHENOBARBITOL?
MED. TO CONTROL SEIZURES
WHAT IS A MENINGIOMA?
TUMOR THAT COVERS BRAIN
WHAT'S CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS
PREMATURE CLOSURE OF BONES
WHAT'S SYNCOPE?
FAINTING
WHAT'S PAPAVARINE
SMOOTH MUSCLE RELAXANT
WHO IS HARVEY CUSHING
FATHER OF NEUROSURGERY
WHAT ARE ENDORPHINES
NATURAL PAIN KILLERS
WHAT IS A CAMINO
SPECIAL MACHINE USED TO MEASURE ICP
TIC DOLOREUX
TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA; AFFECTS TRIGEMINAL NERVE (CRANIAL NERVE V); EXTREMELY PAINFUL
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SCALP AND ANEURYSM CLIPS
SCALP CLIPS ARE PLASTIC, INEXPENSIVE AND DISPOSABLE; ANEURYSM CLIPS TITANIUM OR STAINLESS STEEL
HAKIN SHUNT
CAROTID ENDERTERECTOMY SHUNT
NAME ANEURYSM CLIPS
SCHWARTZ AND RANEY
WHAT IS A SYMPATHECTOMY
SYMPATHETIC NERVE FIBERS AND GANGLIA OF ANS ARE INTERRUPTED
MOST COMMON INTRAMEDULLARY TUMOR
GLIOMAS
in neuro, local anesthetic is injected for what purpose?
vasoconstriction NOT pain
angiography is used to diagnose what?
aneurysm
ventriculography is used to diagnose what
tumors
what's neurorrhaphy
anastomosis of a severed nerve
what blade is used in sympathectomy to cut the ends of nerves prior to reanastomosis
#15
anterior cervical diskectomy is aka what
CLOWARD PROCEDURE
what instruments are used to "connect the dots" of the burr holes in a craniotomy?
treefine or midas rex
if a dural stitch is needed what type of suture is used?
4-0 silk pop off on tf needle or ethibond
what is the purpose of a stereotactic procedure?
precise location
define craniostenosis
craniectomy is performed to correct the premature closure of an infant's cranial suture lines. craniostenosis is a congenital deformity of the skull that results from premature closure of one or more of the cranial sutures of the skull
during craniectomy what is silastic sheeting used for
inserted over the bone edges after edges are waxed
how is silastic sheeting handled
must be washed with soap and rinsed in sterile water and then sterilized
what is the origin of the intracranial aneurysm
the internal carotid or mid cerebral artery
what is an av malformation
an abnormal communication between the arteries and veins
what is trephination
creation of bur holes
define cordotomy
division of the anterolateral tracts of the spinal cord for treatment of intractable pain
define rhizotomy
performed through an exposure similar to cordotomy; when spinal cord and roots have been exposed and posterior root identified, the post. root is resected