Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What 3 divisions are there of the hypothalamus?
1) Preoptic area
2) Supraoptic area (PVN, anterior nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus)
3) tuberal region (dorsomedial nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus)
4) mammillary region (mammillary body, posterior nucleus)
Which parts of the hypothalamus are parasympathetic?
preoptic area and anterior nucleus
Which parts of the hypothalamus are sympathetic?
posterior nucleus and part of the ventromedial nucleus
Where does the mammillary body innervate and where does it finally go?
Mammillary body->A, LD of thalamus->cingulate gyrus
Which part of the hypothalamus is considered telencephalon?
preoptic area and suprachiasmatic nucleus (the rest of hypothalamus diencephalon)
Where does the SCN get info from?
the retina; important in cyclical activity in circadian rhythms
Which structures of the hypothalamus have magnocellular portions and what do they do?
1) PVN- releases oxytocin to the posterior lobe of the pituitary
2) supraoptic nucleus- releases basopressin to the posterior lobe of the pituitary
Why are magnocellular and parvocellular cells called neurosecretory and how are they connected/function?
-because they release hormones
- connected by capillary beds connecting these nucli and hormones go directly into systemic circulation from brain
Which structures of the hypothalamus have parvocellular portions and what do they do?
1) arcuate nucleus
2) PVN
-both release release hormone-releasing hormones (like leuteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, etc.)
What is oxytocin involved in?
uterine contraction and milk "letdown"
What is vasopressin called otherwise and what does it do?
- also called antidiuretic hormone and acts on kidneys to conserve water
what is the portal vein and where is one found?
runs between 2 capillary beds, seen in pituitary called hypophyseal portal vein
What is the anterior pituitary made out of and what does it do?
- made out of gland cells which include those that release thyroid-stimulating hormone
- receptors for certain hormones to release other hormone-releasing hormones, etc.
What are the functions of the dorsomedial and ventromedial nuclei?
related to eating/feeding
What input does the mammillary body get?
from hippocampal formation
What is the cascade of the thyroid hormonal system?
Neuron in tuberal nuclei (parvocellular) causes thyroid hormone-releasing hormone to go into the hypophyseal portal system to a secretory cell in the anterior pituitary which releases thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) which goes to the thyroid gland and stimulates it to secrete thyroxin
What is the definition of limbic structures?
- structures in synaptic proximity of the hypothalamus (project directly or indirectly), related to emotional and motivational aspects of behavior and formation of memories
Where is the amygdala located?
- medial aspect of temporal love
- ventral surface of brain near optic chiasm
What are the 3 parts of the amygdala?
1) olfactory amygdala
2) cortex-like amygdala (BL= Basolateral)
3) striatal or subpallial structure (medial nucleus, central nucleus, BNST)
What is the basolateral amygdala important in?
developing avoidance to auditory and gustatory stimuli
Where are the bed nucleus of stria terminalis located?
- means "embedded fibers"
- fibers from amygdala, extension of striatal nuclei
Where is the orbitofrontal cortex located?
part of PFC, ventral of eyeballs (near orbits)
Where does the central nucleus of the amygdala innervate?
brainstem and hypothalamus (through ANS)
Where does the medial nucleus of the amygdala go?
brainstem and hypothalamus (particularly through endocrine area)
Where does the olfactory nucleus of the amygdala go?
hypothalamus directly
What is considered the limbic version of the striatum?
nucleus accumbens in the ventral striatum
What are the results when the amygdala is damaged?
- aggressive behavior above normal
- more fearful (even happens just stimulating amygdala)
What is the function of the amygdala?
establishes links between internal and external stimuli and emotional value of stimuli
What is Urbach-Wiethe Disease, how is it caused, and what is the result of it?
- amygdala replaced by calcium deposits bilaterally over time
- due to rare autosomal recessive gene
- no problems in learning, but had very positive attitude, no inhibition about strangers, didn't fear anything and couldn't interpret it in other people, couldn't make sound social judgments after experience but did know what fear was supposed to be and what to do in those situations; anger also not completely normal
What are 2 areas of unimodal association?
parahippocampal gyrus and cingulate gyrus
What kinds of neurons does the septal nucleus and nucleus basalis have?
cholinergic neurons
Who is HM and what losses did he/she have as a result of surgery?
- at age 10 had major seizures which progressed
- at age 27 had amygdala, hippocampus, and surroudning cortices including entorhinal area removed to reduce seizures
- intelligent, normal personality but cant make new memories (retrograde amnesia), only way to remember is if it's in his working memory
- can learn procedural tasks like drawing while looking in a mirror and had normal learning curve
What is the cause of HM's losses in memory?
- unimodal association areas
- patient deprived of O2 during surgery and found one part of CA field in hippocampus damaged which disrupted flow of info into/out of hippocampus
- old memories already gone out to other areas but those in hippocampus make new memories and won't go out to unimodal association areas
3 parts of hippocampus?
1) dentate gyrus
2) hippocampus proper/CA fields (cornu ammonis "horns of ammus")
3) subiculum
What are the inputs to the basolateral amygdala?
1) unimodal association areas (21, 22, 7)
2) thalamus (auditory and gustatory)
3) ACh from the nucleus basalis
What are the outputs of the basolateral amygdala?
1) M, C
2) DM nucleus of the thalamus->PFC
3) ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens)
What are the inputs to M, C of the amygdala?
1) hippocampal formation
2) insular cortex
3) orbitofrontal cortex
4) basolateral amygdala
What is the input and output of the olfactory amygdala?
input: olfactory bulb
output: M, C of amygdala
What is the Schaffer collateral?
- fiber that runs from the dentate gyrus to the cingulate gyrus
What is the flow of info in the hippocampus?
1) unimodal association areas->dentate gyrus
2) CA3->CA1->CA2->hippocampus proper->subiculum->entorhinal area of parahippocampal gyrus->unimodal association areas (multimodal)
What are the inputs to the entorhinal area of the parahippocampal gyrus?
1) olfactory bulb->primary olfactory cortex
2) primary olfactory cortex
3) unimodal association areas
What is the principal pathway involving hippocampal formation and neocortex?
entorhinal cortex of parahippocampal gyrus (28)->dentate gyrus->CA3->CA1->subiculum (or direct) to entorhinal cortex
3 layers of the hippocampal cortex?
1) molecular layer (excited by Schaffer collateral which goes to CA1)
2) pyramidal layer (whose cells excite the cells in the polymorph layer and have the schaffer collaterals off them); output to the fornix
3) polymorph layer (stratum oriens) whose cells inhibit the pyramidal layer cells
What are 5 similarities between the vestibular and the auditory systems?
2) hair cells in inner ear
3) derive from otic capsule (from otic placode)
4) fibers go to special somatic sensory corner of medulla
5) vestibular and cochlear nuclei
What are the differences in function of the auditory and vestibular systems?
Auditory: detects sound waves
Vestibular: detects balance/tilt
What are Hz and pitch?
Hz= frequency of sound= cycles/sec
pitch= number of cycles/sec
Normal hearing range in humans?
20-16,000 Hz
most sensitive around 3,000 Hz
tend to use from 300-3,000 Hz
What is amplitude and what is it measured in?
amplitude= dB (decibels)
conversational speech about 65dB
if exposed to sounds greater than 100dB will have permanent hearing loss
uses a logarithmic scale
What is the tympanic membrane and how much does it vibrate?
thin membrane
vibrates 1/10th angrstom with conversation
What are the 3 middle ear ossicles and where are they located?
1) malleus closest to eardrum
2) incus in middle
3) stapes most inner, connected to oval window
What is the Eustachian tube and what happens when it's inflamed?
pressure on one side or other will cause hearing to be abnormal, like in an airplane
Which vibration is larger- the ear drum or the oval window?
oval window because gets amplified and also much smaller than eardrum
What is the stampedius muscle and what is it innervate by?
- muscle on stapes
- diminishes sound transmitted there
- innervated by CN VII (facial nucleus)
What is the tensor tympanii innervated by?
Motor nucleus of V
Where are the tectorial and basilar membranes and what do they do?
tectorial membrane has hair cells on it; when basilar membrane moves, it bends the hair cells on the tectorial membrane
What is endolymph and perilymph?
endolymph is like IC fluid and has a lot of K+ while perilymph is like EC fluid
How does the bending of hair cells in the ear work?
Bending causes mechanically-gated K+ channels to open and Ca++ to flow into hair cells and release neurotransmitter (glutamate) to another neurite
- movement to R opens channels; movement to L closes channels
What are the hair cells in the ear called?
stereocilia except for the last larger one called kinocilium attached to the basal body which is polarized maximmaly
What is the route from a hair cell?
hair cell sends info through CNVIII to the cell body in the spiral ganglion to the cochlear nuclei in the CNS
How many inner v. outer hair cells are there and what are their functions?
3000-4000 inner hair cells, 12000 outer hair cells
- but inner hair cells more important (connected to 95% of fibers of brain)
- outer hair cells set sensitivity of ear (if close together doesn't take much deflection to hear and vice versa) and allows us to filter out sounds
Does damage on one side of ascending auditory pathways ever cause damage to the ears?
It never causes loss of either ear completely because of large number of decussations
How does the tonotopic map work?
the base of the cochlea near the oval window represents high frequency and is a stiff region while the apex or heliocotrema represents low frequency and is a flexible region
What separates scala vestibula, scala media, scala tympani?
1) Reissner's membrane separates the scala vestibuli and scala media
2) basilar membrane separates the scala media from the scala tympani
Where are scala vestibula, scala media, and scala tympani in the cochlea and what does it mean?
- scala media is the most innermost area, scala vestibuli is the most outermost, and scala tympani between them
- scala tympani highest frequency and scala media lowest frequency
What is the efferent pathway to the outer hair cells?
olivocochlear bundle
What is the function of descending auditory pathways?
attuning to things
What is the function of the vestibular system?
- maintains visual stabilization of an object (can continue to focus on something no matter position to you)
What are the utricle and saccule called?
static labyrinths because sense tilt of head
What is the difference between the utricle and saccule?
they're both fluid-filled but the utricle has horizontal orientation of hair cells (towards the striola of the macula) while the saccule has vertical orientation of hair cells
What are the semicircular canals' function and how are they arranged?
- measure acceleration of head
- perpendicular to eachother
- have ampulla (swelling) in each canal
What is an ampulla and what does it do in terms of the vestibular system?
has endolymph and a gelatinous cupula inside whose movement causes movement of hair cells on the crista and supporting cells to bend
What happens in the horizontal canals if you move your head to the left?
fluid will lag behind and one side will activate fibers of VIII nerve and the other side will decrease firing of VIII nerve
What is the macula and how does it work?
- where sensory structures are located in the utricle
- above the hair cells is an otolithic membrane (macula) with ear stones made of Ca++ which move and bend/excite the hair cells underneath
Which structures involved in movement of eyes in response to movement of head?
abducens, oculamotor, trochlear nucleus influenced by MLF from medulla level up to eye; MLF intermediate btw vestibular and eye movement
Which structures involved in influencing muscles from movement of head?
- descending connections in descending MLF, will influence axial musculature
- descending lateral vestibulospinal tract influences medial musculature too
Which ascending pathway projects to Brodmann's area 2 (primary vestibular cortex)?
vestibular nuclei->VPI (ventral posterior inferior nucleus of the thalamus)->Brodmann's area 2 (primary vestibular cortex)
The afferent out of the ampulla?
cell bodies in vestibular ganglion and to vestibular system
What is the choroid of the eye and what is its function?
choroid- absorbs light, is pigmented
Which muscle and nerve innervates the iris and what does it do?
- iris changes amount of light coming through pupil
- ciliary muscle pulls on lens and decreases tension in fibers of zonnule of zinn
- edinger-westphal nucleus and superior cervical ganglion from T1-T4 constrict pupil
- over time, lens decreases elasticity
taptum lucidum?
- shiny irredescent black part of eye near retina
- causes "eye-shine" like deer in the headlights
when do you have trichromatic vision?
when all 3 kinds of rods are working
What do photoreceptors do?
- change with light (more light= cones, less light= rods)
- rods/cones->bipolar cells->ganglion cells (action potential generated)
- clearest vision/details
- where photoreceptors easiest to get to because rod-free area
- lots of cones, not many rods
Why don't we always have a blind spot?
Cortex fills in blind spot with rest of environment
what is the consensual pupillary constriction reflex?
- shine light in one eye, both eyes should constrict automatically
What function does parvocellular input from cones do?
sees small part of visual field, so resolves detail well
Function of magnocellular input in eye?
- gets input from large number of fibers mostly rods (bipolar cells intermediary), sees larger visual fields so more sensitive to movement across them
"What stream"
parvocellular retinal ganglion cells->P layers of LGN->P part of V1->V2 (illusory contours), V4 interblob (form with color), V4 blob (color)
If you lesion V4 bilaterally, what happens?
causes achromatopsia (lose color)
How/Where stream
Magnocellular retinal ganglion cells->M layers of LGN->M Part of V1->V2, V3 (Dynamic Form), V5 (motion)
If you lesion V5 bilaterally, what happens?
akinetopsia (ex: Ingrid)
What are the 3 kinds of rods?
1) 3 kinds of rhodopsin
2) opsin
3) short, med. long
What are the subsets of bipolar cells?
horizontal cells and amacrine cells
How are the hemispheres asymmetric?
-left hemisphere has much more sulci (= more cortex) near Broca's area compared to right hemisphere
- Sylvian fissue also more horizontal in left hemishere because inferior parietal lobule larger in left than right (for reading/writing?)
Language-to-handedness phenomenon
- 96% right-handed people have language in left hemisphere and 0% in both while only 70% of left-handed people have language in left hemisphere and 15% in both hemispheres
What connects Wernicke's and Broca's areas?
arcuate fasciculus
Wernicke's area issues
comprehension deficit called receptive aphasia
Broca's area damage
expressive aphasia, reduced fluency language, can be mute or lose certain parts of language but have comprehension
Wernicke-Geshwind Model of alexia with agraphia
- reading and writing deficits as well as issues recognizing letters is a deficit in the angular gyrus because get visual information and somatosensory info (alexia with agraphia- inability to read and write)
Wernicke-Geshwind Model of pure alexia
means can write (somatosensory intact) but can't read their writing and have visual deficits in their right visual field--V1 on left side compromised which goes into splenium of corpus callosum so right side cant get info to left
Cat experiments with split-brain
- patch over right eye on cat and put cat into box and trained it to know vertical lines meant food rewards and vertical lines bad
- patched other eye later and acted like it never learned this so corpus callosum essential to relay info between hemispheres
Split brain patients
- corpus callosum and optic chiasm cut which causes input of right eye confined to right side of brain and vice versa
- helps seizures and generally normal patients except they speak what they see in right field and say they don't see what is flashed on left even though they correctly identify the object
- right hemisphere better in spatial problems and provides direction to other hand
- when shown chimeric face, if told to say what they see will say its a man (right hemisphere) but will point to woman (left hemisphere)
What does a lesion of the mirror of Broca's area on the R cause?
expressive aprosodia (monotony of speech, inability to change intonation/meaning of words)
What does a lesion of the mirror of Wernicke's area on the R cause?
receptive aprosodia (don't understand intonations/meanings but can use them)
What does a lesion of the fusiform gyrus of both or right side cause?
prosopagnosia- can't recognize faces anymore, even familiar ones but can remember once they hear voice and can recognize individual facial features
What causes neglect of the left visual field?
- R hemisphere lesion in parietal lobe causes contralateral personal, spatial, and representational (imagining a situation) neglect
- when made aware of neglect, can become aware of it
Why is neglect of the right visual field less common?
- both left and right visual field info activates right parietal lobe which is more important in spatial tasks; left hemisphere parietal lobe lesion only causes minimal right neglect
- to have severe right side neglect, have to have partial bilateral lesions
What are the 3 sections of the prefrontal cortex?
1) dorsolateral
2) dorsomedial
3) ventromedial
What is the function of the dorsolateral part of the PFC?
working memory, intellectual capacities, creative and flexible thinking, fluency in verbal and design
What is the function of the dorsomedial part of the PFC?
emotional behavior, motivational drive, arousal and alertness, personality
What is the function of the ventromedial part of the PFC?
also called orbitofrontal cortex, important in social conduct, planning, decision making, emotional states causing bodily states
Describe the monkey experiment done with working memory
- monkeys looked forward while cue on side happened and during given signal looked towards where cue as shown so had to keep signal in working memory
- correct trials showed high neuron firing rate in dorsolateral PFC until monkey could look at location
- incorrect trials showed low firing rates throughout and diseappeared before looking at location
Phineas Gage damage and results?
- damage to ventromedial and dorsomedial areas with some preservation of dorsolateral areas
- unreasonable, planning ahead bad, didnt consider others feelings, made up stories, fond of pets, children, and crowbar, lots of interests but didnt follow through
- bar went through cheek to top of head
Result of lesions between parietal and occipital lobes (Zasetsky)
- psychologist Luria
- Zasetsky soldier and scientist
- after wounded, couldnt understand words or respond, memory fragments evolved and could remember words and events, disconnected thoughts, reacted abnormally, speech simple, couldnt write any words, occipital lobe damaged and vision bad (couldn't see entire objects), hallucinations, right neglect, sense of his own dimensions changes, actions in space bad
- still had wills, desires, sustained intentions and plan actions; aware of his problems
- gradually better but failed linguistic constructions, wrote journals